Back to: Jss2 Home Economics (PVS)
Topic: Arrangement of Fullness
WEEK: 8 & 9
The arrangement of fullness in clothing refers to the way in which extra fabric is distributed and controlled within a garment. Fullness can be added to clothing to create volume, drape, or movement, and it can be arranged in a variety of ways depending on the desired effect.
The arrangement of fullness in clothing can have a significant impact on the overall look and feel of a garment. Different techniques can be used to create different effects, from a structured, tailored look to a soft, flowing silhouette.
There are several common methods for arranging fullness in clothing:
- Gathered: This involves pulling excess fabric into small, even folds and stitching it in place. Gathering can be used to create a puffed or gathered effect at the waist, sleeves, or hem of a garment.
- Pleated: Pleating involves folding and stitching fabric in a more structured way than gathering. The folds can be narrow or wide and can be arranged in a variety of patterns, such as box pleats, knife pleats, or accordion pleats.
- Draped: Draping involves allowing the fabric to fall in loose, fluid folds, without any structured folds or gathers. This technique can be used to create a soft, flowing silhouette in a garment.
- Shirred: Shirring involves stitching multiple rows of elastic thread to create a stretchy, gathered effect in the fabric. This technique is often used in the bodice or sleeves of a garment to create a snug, fitted effect.
- Ruched: Ruching involves gathering the fabric in a decorative way to create a textured effect. This can be done in a variety of patterns, such as diagonal, horizontal, or vertical lines.
Meaning of Fullness
Fullness in clothing refers to the amount of fabric that is used in a garment to create a particular shape or silhouette. It is the extra fabric that is added to a garment to make it drape or flow in a certain way.
There are various ways to add fullness to clothing, such as by using gathers, pleats, tucks, ruffles, flounces, or draping. For example, a full skirt can be created by gathering or pleating a large amount of fabric at the waistline, while a voluminous sleeve can be achieved by adding gathers or fullness at the shoulder and cuff.
Fullness can be used to create different styles and moods in clothing, such as a romantic or bohemian look with ruffles and flounces, or a more structured and tailored look with pleats and tucks. It can also be used to accommodate different body shapes and sizes, such as adding fullness to a dress to fit a larger bust or hip measurement.
However, too much fullness can also create an unflattering or overwhelming effect, making the wearer look bulky or shapeless. It is important to balance the amount of fullness in a garment with the wearer’s body proportions and the overall design of the outfit.
“gathers” refers to the process of bringing together excess fabric to create a full or gathered effect in a particular area of a garment. This technique is achieved by sewing a row of stitches, often using a basting stitch, along a straight piece of fabric and then pulling the thread to gather the fabric until it conforms to a specific shape or length.
Gathers are often used in clothing to create fullness in sleeves, skirts, or dresses. For example, a dress might have gathered at the waistline to create a fuller skirt or at the cuffs to give the sleeves a more voluminous look. Gathers can also be used to create ruffles or pleats in a garment.
The amount of fullness created by gathers can vary depending on the spacing of the stitches and the amount of fabric gathered. Additionally, the type of fabric used can also affect the appearance of gathers, as some fabrics are more conducive to gathering than others.
Uses of Gathers
Gathers are a sewing technique where fabric is gathered or drawn up in order to create volume or shaping in a garment. Here are some common uses of gathers in clothing:
- Waistbands: A gathered waistband is a common design feature in skirts and dresses, where the fabric is gathered at the waist to create fullness in the skirt.
- Sleeves: Gathers are often used in the sleeves of blouses, dresses, and other tops to create a puffed or billowy effect. This can be achieved by gathering the fabric at the shoulder or at the cuff.
- Necklines: Gathers can be used around the neckline of a garment to create a soft, draped effect. This technique is often seen in blouses or dresses with a gathered or shirred neckline.
- Hemlines: Gathers can be used at the hemline of a garment to create a ruffled or flared effect. This is often seen in skirts or dresses where the fabric is gathered to create a fuller, more dramatic look.
- Bodices: Gathers can be used in the bodice of a garment to create shaping or to add fullness to the bust area. This is often seen in blouses or dresses with a gathered or shirred bodice.
Effectiveness of Gathers
GATHERS are fabric or material that is gathered together and stitched to create a textured or pleated effect in clothing. The effectiveness of gathers in clothing depends on various factors, such as the type of garment, fabric used, and the desired effect. Below are some of the ways in which gathers can be effective in clothing:
- Aesthetic appeal: Gathers can add a decorative and unique texture to clothing, making it more visually appealing. Gathers can be used to create various styles and designs, such as ruffles, pleats, and gathers at the waistline, sleeves, or neckline.
- Improved fit: Gathers can be used to adjust the fit of a garment, creating a more flattering and comfortable silhouette. For example, gathers can be used to cinch in a waistline or add fullness to a skirt.
- Increased mobility: Gathers can add flexibility to a garment, allowing for ease of movement. This can be particularly useful in athletic or dancewear, where the garment needs to be able to move with the body.
- Functionality: Gathers can be used to add pockets or compartments to a garment, creating practical storage solutions.
- Fabric manipulation: Gathers can be used to manipulate the way a fabric drapes or hangs, creating a desired effect. For example, gathers can be used to create a more structured or voluminous silhouette or to add depth and dimension to a fabric.
Method of Gathers
The gathering is a sewing technique used to create fullness in a garment or fabric by drawing together two or more sections of fabric with parallel rows of stitches.
The gathering is a versatile technique that can be used to add fullness to sleeves, skirts and other parts of a garment. It can also be used to create ruffles and other decorative elements. This technique is commonly used in clothing, particularly in the following methods:
- Basting Stitch Gather: This method involves creating long, loose stitches by hand or with a sewing machine along the edge of the fabric to be gathered. The fabric is then gently pulled along the threads to create the desired fullness. The gathering is then secured by knotting or stitching the threads in place.
- Zigzag Stitch Gather: Zigzag stitch gathering involves using a sewing machine to create a zigzag stitch over a piece of thread. The fabric is then pulled along the thread to gather it, and the stitches are secured by knotting or stitching in place.
- Elastic Thread Gather: This method uses elastic thread to create gathers. The elastic thread is wound onto the bobbin of a sewing machine, and regular thread is used on the top. The fabric is then sewn with parallel rows of stitches, and the elastic thread gathers the fabric as it is sewn. This method creates a softer, more flexible gathering that is ideal for lightweight fabrics.
- Drawstring Gather: This method involves creating a channel in the fabric and inserting a drawstring or ribbon through it. The fabric is then gathered by pulling the drawstring, and the gathering is secured by tying the ends of the drawstring.
Shirring is a decorative technique used in clothing design where fabric is gathered or pleated in a particular pattern to create a textured, bunched, or ruffled effect. The process involves sewing parallel rows of elastic thread onto a piece of fabric, which causes the fabric to gather and form small, puckered sections. Shirring is often used to create fitted bodices, cuffs, waistbands, or sleeves on dresses, tops, or skirts. This technique can also be used to add volume or texture to the fabric and create a more dynamic, eye-catching design. Shirring is a popular technique in both traditional and contemporary clothing design and can be done by hand or with a sewing machine.
Methods of Shirring
Shirring is a decorative technique used in clothing design to create gathers or pleats in a garment. This technique involves sewing parallel rows of stitching through a section of fabric and then pulling the threads to gather the fabric evenly.
Shirring is often used in clothing design to create texture, add fullness to a garment, or accentuate certain areas such as the waist or cuffs of sleeves. It can be used on a variety of fabrics, including lightweight cotton, silk, and chiffon. Here are some common methods of shirring in clothing:
- Machine shirring: This method involves using a sewing machine with a shirring foot attachment. The shirring foot helps to create even gathers by feeding the fabric through the machine and sewing parallel rows of stitches. After sewing, the fabric is gently pulled to gather it evenly.
- Hand shirring: This method involves sewing parallel rows of stitches by hand using a needle and thread. After sewing, the fabric is gathered by pulling the threads and knotting them at the ends to hold the gathers in place.
- Elastic thread shirring: This method involves using elastic thread in the bobbin of a sewing machine. The elastic thread creates gathers as it is sewn into the fabric, eliminating the need for additional gathering techniques.
- Drawstring shirring: This method involves creating a casing in the fabric by folding and sewing it over, leaving a small opening to insert a drawstring. The drawstring is then pulled tight to gather the fabric evenly.
DARTS refer to small folded sections of fabric that are sewn into a garment to create shaping and contouring. Darts are typically used in areas where the fabric needs to be fitted more closely to the body, such as the waist, bust, or hips.
Darts are created by pinching the fabric together along a designated line and stitching it together, either by hand or with a sewing machine. The excess fabric is then trimmed away to create a smooth, fitted shape. Darts can be either visible or hidden, depending on the design of the garment and the preference of the designer.
Darts are an important element in clothing design, as they allow the garment to fit better and enhance the overall appearance and silhouette of the wearer. They can be found in a wide variety of garments, including dresses, blouses, jackets, and pants, and are often used in combination with other construction techniques, such as pleats or gathers, to create more complex shapes and structures.
Uses of Darts
DARTS are triangular folds of fabric sewn into a garment to add shape and structure. They are commonly used in clothing design to create a tailored look and provide a better fit. Darts are an essential component of clothing design, helping to provide a better fit and a more tailored look to a garment. Some of the uses of darts include;
- To create a fitted silhouette: Darts can be used in garments such as dresses, blouses, and jackets to create a more fitted silhouette. They are often placed at the bust, waist, and hip to remove excess fabric and create a more streamlined look.
- To shape and contour garments: Darts can be used to shape and contour various parts of a garment. For example, a dart at the back of a shirt can help to shape the garment around the shoulders, while darts at the elbows can give sleeves a more tailored fit.
- To adjust for sizing: Darts can be used to adjust for different body sizes and shapes. For example, a garment that is too large in the waist can be taken in with the use of darts.
- To add design elements: Darts can be used as a design element in clothing. They can be made in a contrasting fabric or added to a garment in a different colour to add interest.
- To improve comfort and mobility: Darts can be used to improve the comfort and mobility of a garment. For example, darts at the elbow of a jacket can provide more ease of movement.
Method of Making Darts
Darts are a common technique used in clothing construction to create shapes and remove excess fabric from a garment. Here are a few methods for making darts in clothing:
- Transfer Method: This is the most common method used to make darts. First, you will need to mark the dart’s centre point on the fabric’s wrong side using a fabric pen or chalk. Next, fold the fabric along the marked centre line so that the dart legs align. Pin the dart in place, making sure that the dart legs remain straight and parallel to each other. Use a ruler to draw the dart’s legs along the folded fabric’s fold line. Finally, stitch along the marked dart legs, starting at the widest point of the dart and tapering to the tip.
- Cut-and-Spread Method: This method is useful for creating more significant darts. Begin by marking the dart’s centre point on the fabric’s right side. Cut along the dart’s legs from the point of the dart to the dart’s widest part, being careful not to cut through the centre point. Spread the fabric along the cut edges, pinning it in place to form the dart’s shape. Finally, stitch along the marked dart legs, starting at the widest point of the dart and tapering to the tip.
- Fold-and-Stitch Method: This method is best used for small darts. Fold the fabric along the marked centre point of the dart so that the dart legs align. Pin the dart in place, making sure that the dart legs remain straight and parallel to each other. Stitch along the marked dart legs, starting at the widest point of the dart and tapering to the tip.
- Pleat Method: This method is used to create multiple darts in one area. Begin by marking the dart’s centre point on the fabric’s wrong side. Fold the fabric along the marked centre line to create a pleat, with the dart legs aligned. Pin the pleat in place, making sure that the pleat is straight and parallel to the fabric’s grain line. Stitch along the pleat’s centre line, starting at the pleat’s widest point and tapering to the tip.
Tucks are a type of sewing technique used to create folds or pleats in fabric. This technique involves stitching a small amount of fabric in a straight line and then folding it over, creating a neat and tidy fold. Tucks are often used in clothing to create shaping or texture, and they can be used in a variety of ways, such as on the front of a blouse or along the waistband of a skirt.
Tucks can be used to create a variety of effects in clothing, including adding fullness or shaping to a garment or creating visual interest and texture. They can also be used to shorten a garment without having to cut or hem the fabric, making them a useful technique for altering clothing.
Tucks can also be decorative, and they can be used in a variety of ways to add visual interest to a garment. For example, tucks can be combined with other decorative techniques, such as lace or embroidery, to create a unique and personalized look.
Uses of TUCKS
Tucks are a type of decorative stitching technique used in clothing. They are created by folding a piece of fabric and stitching it down to create a decorative fold or pleat. Tucks can be used for both functional and decorative purposes. Here are ten different uses of tucks in clothing:
- To add texture: Tucks can be used to add visual interest and texture to a garment. For example, tucks can be used to create a ribbed or textured effect on the surface of a fabric.
- To create a fitted silhouette: Tucks can be used to create a fitted silhouette by taking in excess fabric at the waist, hips, or bust. This technique is often used in tailored garments such as jackets or dresses.
- To add shape to a garment: Tucks can be used to add shape to a garment, such as adding volume to a skirt or creating a flared sleeve.
- To add detail: Tucks can be used as a decorative detail on a garment, such as creating a row of tucks along a neckline or hemline.
- To add structure: Tucks can be used to add structure to a garment, such as creating a crisp, tailored look in a shirt or blouse.
- To create pleats: Tucks can be used to create pleats, which are a series of tucks folded in the same direction. Pleats can add volume and movement to a garment.
- To control fullness: Tucks can be used to control fullness in a garment, such as creating a fitted waistline in a dress or skirt.
- To create ruffles: Tucks can be used to create ruffles, which are a series of small tucks gathered together. Ruffles can add a playful or feminine touch to a garment.
- To add dimension: Tucks can be used to add dimension to a garment, such as creating a three-dimensional effect on the surface of a fabric.
- To create a vintage look: Tucks were popular in vintage clothing styles, such as the Edwardian era. Using tucks can create a vintage look in modern clothing designs.
Methods of Making Tucks
“Tucks” refer to folds of fabric that are stitched in place, often used to add decorative detail or shape to a garment. There are several methods of making tucks in clothing:
- Plain Tucks: Plain tucks are the simplest form of tucks, created by folding the fabric over and stitching it in place. The width of the tuck and the spacing between them can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Plain tucks are often used in the front of blouses or dresses, to create a fitted or tailored look.
- Pin Tucks: Pin tucks are similar to plain tucks, but are created by folding the fabric over a pin and then stitching it in place. The pin is removed after stitching, leaving a small, crisp fold in the fabric. Pin tucks are often used to create a delicate or feminine effect, and can be used to add detail to collars, cuffs, or yokes.
- Box Pleats: Box pleats are a type of tuck that is folded in a specific way to create a three-dimensional effect. To make a box pleat, the fabric is folded in one direction and then folded again in the opposite direction, with the folds meeting in the middle. The fabric is then stitched in place, creating a box-shaped fold that stands away from the garment. Box pleats are often used in skirts or dresses to create fullness and movement.
- Inverted Box Pleats: Inverted box pleats are similar to box pleats, but the folds are inverted so that they point towards each other. This creates a more subtle three-dimensional effect, and can be used to add fullness without adding bulk. Inverted box pleats are often used in the back of jackets or blouses, to add shape and movement.
- Knife Pleats: Knife pleats are another type of tuck that is folded in a specific way to create a three-dimensional effect. To make a knife pleat, the fabric is folded in one direction, and then folded again in the opposite direction, with the folds meeting in the same direction. The fabric is then stitched in place, creating a sharp, triangular fold. Knife pleats are often used in skirts or kilts to create a structured, uniform look.
- Gathered Tucks: Gathered tucks are created by gathering the fabric before stitching it in place. This creates a more relaxed, flowing effect, and can be used to add fullness to a garment without adding bulk. Gathered tucks are often used in the front or back of dresses or blouses, to create a soft, feminine look.
Pleats in clothing refer to a fold or series of folds made by doubling fabric back on itself and securing it in place. Pleats are commonly used in clothing design as a way to add shape, texture, and volume to garments, and they can be found in various types of clothing, including skirts, pants, dresses, and shirts.
Types of pleat
There are several different types of pleats, including:
- Box pleats: These are double pleats where the fabric is folded in opposite directions, creating a box-like shape.
- Knife pleats: These are narrow, sharp folds that are pressed in one direction, usually used in skirts.
- Inverted pleats: These are similar to box pleats, but the folds face inward, creating a flat appearance on the outside.
- Accordion pleats: These are tiny, evenly spaced pleats that create a zigzag effect and can be used to add volume and texture to a garment.
Pleats can be functional or decorative, and they can be used to create different styles and shapes in clothing. They are often used in conjunction with other design elements such as darts, tucks, and gathers to achieve a specific look or fit.
Method of Working Pleats
Working pleats is a common technique used in clothing construction to create folds or creases in fabric for both functional and decorative purposes. Here are some common methods of working pleats:
- Box pleat: This is created by folding the fabric back on itself in opposite directions to create a flat fold with two equal folds facing each other. This is commonly used in skirts, dresses, and pants to add fullness and shape to the garment.
- Knife pleat: This is created by folding the fabric in one direction and pressing the crease flat. The fold is then folded over in the opposite direction, creating a V-shaped fold. This is commonly used in skirts, pants, and jackets to add structure and movement to the garment.
- Inverted pleat: This is created by folding the fabric in the same direction and pressing the crease flat. The fold is then folded over in the opposite direction, creating a flat fold with two equal folds facing away from each other. This is commonly used in skirts and dresses to add fullness without adding bulk.
- Accordion pleat: This is created by folding the fabric in alternating directions, creating a series of small pleats that run parallel to each other. This is commonly used in skirts, dresses, and blouses to add texture and movement to the garment.
- Boxed pleat: This is created by folding the fabric in one direction and pressing the crease flat. The fold is then folded over in the opposite direction, creating a V-shaped fold with a flat panel in the centre. This is commonly used in skirts and dresses to add fullness and structure to the garment.
Each of these methods of working pleats can be adjusted in terms of size, spacing, and direction to create a wide variety of effects in clothing design.
Smocking is an embroidery technique used to gather fabric so that it can stretch. It involves creating small, decorative stitches on the surface of a garment or fabric, and then pulling the threads tight to create a textured pattern of gathers or pleats. This technique is often used in the construction of garments such as dresses, blouses, and shirts, as well as in home decor items like curtains and bedspreads.
Smocking is typically done by hand, using a needle and thread to create a series of small stitches on the fabric. The stitches are then pulled tight to create the gathered effect, and the excess thread is tied off. The resulting smocked fabric has a textured surface that is both decorative and functional, as it allows the garment to stretch and move with the wearer.
Historically, smocking was used as a functional technique to create elasticity in clothing before the invention of elasticity. Today, smocking is often used as a decorative technique to add texture and interest to clothing and other textiles.
the term “easing” refers to a sewing technique used to make a garment fit more comfortably. It involves adding a small amount of extra fabric to one piece of the garment, usually a sleeve or a bodice so that it fits more smoothly into the corresponding piece.
Easing is typically used when one piece of a garment is slightly larger than the other, or when the two pieces have different shapes that need to be joined together. The excess fabric is distributed evenly along the seam, creating a smoother, more natural fit. Without easing, the garment might bunch or pucker, causing discomfort or a poor overall appearance.
Easing can be achieved using various techniques, such as gathering, pleating, or manipulating the fabric while sewing. The amount of easing needed depends on the specific garment and the fit desired and may require some trial and error to achieve the desired result.