Back to: Jss1 Agricultural Science (PVS)
Topic: Breed of Farm Animals
WEEK: 5 & 6
Breed of Farm Animals
Breed of Farm Animals refers to the various types of domesticated animals that have been selectively bred for specific traits such as meat production, milk production, wool production, or other purposes. Over the centuries, farmers and animal breeders have carefully selected and bred animals with desirable traits to improve their performance and adaptability to different environmental conditions.
There are many breeds of farm animals around the world, including cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, and poultry. Each breed has unique characteristics and qualities that make them well-suited for specific farming practices and environments.
Cattle are a group of hoofed mammals, with some having a hump (Bos indicus) such as the Sokoto Gudali, Red Bororo, and White Fulani, while others are humpless (Bos Taurus) like the Muturu and N’dama. These animals are primarily raised for meat and milk production.
Characteristics of Cattle
- Ruminants: Cattle are ruminants, which means they have a four-chambered stomach that allows them to break down and digest tough plant materials like grass.
- Large size: Cattle are among the largest domesticated animals, with adult cows weighing up to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) and bulls weighing up to 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
- Hooves: Cattle have cloven hooves, which are divided into two parts that help distribute their weight and provide traction on slippery surfaces.
- Horns: Many breeds of cattle have horns, which are used for defence and communication with other cattle.
- Domestication: Cattle are one of the earliest domesticated animals, with evidence of domestication dating back to around 8000 BCE.
- Milk production: Many breeds of cattle are used for milk production, and cows can produce up to 50 litres (13 gallons) of milk per day.
- Grazers: Cattle are grazers, meaning they prefer to feed on grasses and other plant materials found in pastures.
- Social animals: Cattle are social animals and form close bonds with their herd mates, communicating through body language and vocalizations.
- Long lifespan: Cattle have a relatively long lifespan for domesticated animals, with some breeds living up to 20 years.
- Bred for meat: Many breeds of cattle are raised for meat production, and their meat is a popular food source around the world. Cattle raised for meat are typically slaughtered at around 18 months to two years of age.
Breeds of Cattle
Breeds are specific types or varieties of animals that have been selectively bred by humans for certain hereditary qualities. There are various breeds of cattle, such as White Fulani: A breed of cattle with white or light-coloured coats that are adapted to hot and dry climates. They are commonly used for both meat and milk production.
- Red Bororo: A breed of cattle with reddish-brown coats that are known for their hardiness and resistance to disease. They are primarily raised for their meat.
- Jet Koram: A breed of cattle with black coats that are well adapted to hot and humid climates. They are primarily used for their meat.
- Shuwa Arab: A breed of cattle with white or light-coloured coats that are raised for both meat and milk production. They are known for their adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments.
- Yola or Adamawa: A breed of cattle with light-coloured coats that are primarily used for milk production.
- N’dama: A breed of cattle with red coats that are well adapted to tsetse fly-infested areas. They are primarily used for meat production.
- Kuri or Lake Chad: A breed of cattle with a variety of coat colors that are adapted to hot and dry environments. They are primarily used for meat production.
- Muturu (WAD): A breed of cattle with dark coats that are adapted to humid environments. They are primarily used for meat production.
- Ghana short horn: A breed of cattle with short horns and light-colored coats that are primarily used for beef production.
Common Cattle Terms
- Calf: A young bovine that is typically less than a year old.
- Heifer: A female bovine that has not yet given birth to a calf.
- Bull: A male bovine that has reached sexual maturity.
- Cow: A female bovine that has given birth to at least one calf.
- Steer A male bovine that has been castrated before reaching sexual maturity.
- Cow-calf operation: A farm or ranch that focuses on raising cows and their calves.
- Bovine: The scientific name for the cattle family.
- Beef: The meat that comes from a cow or bull.
- Dairy: The industry that focuses on the production of milk and milk products.
- Pasture: A fenced-in area of land used for grazing cattle.
- Feedlot: A facility where cattle are fed a high-energy diet to promote weight gain.
- Weaning: The process of separating a calf from its mother.
- Branding: A permanent mark made on a cow to indicate ownership.
- Horns: Bony structures that protrude from the head of some cattle breeds.
- Hooves: The hard, cloven structures that protect the feet of cattle.
- Breeding: The process of mating cows and bulls to produce offspring with desirable traits.
- Artificial insemination (AI): The process of introducing sperm into the reproductive tract of a female cow without natural mating.
- Gestation: The period of pregnancy for a cow, which typically lasts around nine months.
- Milk letdown: The release of milk from a cow’s udder when stimulated by milking or nursing.
- Vaccination: The process of administering vaccines to cattle to prevent diseases and promote overall health.
The roots of sheep can be traced back to Asia, specifically Iran or Iraq. Sheep are reared in countries all around the globe, primarily for their meat (known as mutton), wool, and milk. They are particularly vital in countries located in tropical Africa, such as Tanzania, Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Northern Nigeria, and Ethiopia.
Characteristics of Sheep
- Sheep are social animals: Sheep are naturally social animals that thrive in flocks. They tend to form close relationships with other sheep and prefer to stay close to them.
- Grazing animals: Sheep are herbivores and graze on grass and other vegetation. They have a complex digestive system that enables them to extract nutrients from tough plant material.
- Woolly coats: Sheep have thick woolly coats that provide insulation from the cold. Their wool is also used for clothing and other products.
- Docile temperament: Sheep are generally docile and calm animals. They are not aggressive and are easily spooked.
- Curiosity: Sheep are curious animals and will often approach humans and other animals to investigate them.
- Vulnerability: Sheep are vulnerable animals and are often preyed upon by predators such as wolves and coyotes.
- Strong maternal instincts: Female sheep, also known as ewes, have strong maternal instincts and are protective of their lambs.
- Short lifespan: Sheep have a relatively short lifespan, averaging around 7-8 years.
- Good memory: Sheep have good memories and are able to recognize familiar faces and places for years.
- Vocal communication: Sheep are capable of a wide range of vocalizations, including baaing, bleating, and grunting. They use these sounds to communicate with other members of their flock.
Breeds of Sheep
In West Africa, there are three well-known breeds of sheep: Ouda: This breed of sheep is also known as the Fulani sheep and is the most common and widespread breed found in West Africa. They are characterized by their large, wide, and spiral horns in rams, which are used for defence against predators. They are typically raised for meat, wool, and milk production, and are adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of the region.
- West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep: The WAD sheep is a small, hardy breed that is well adapted to the harsh climatic conditions in Nigeria. They are mostly raised for meat and wool, which is used for making rugs and carpets.
- Uda Sheep: The Uda sheep is a medium-sized breed that is found mainly in the northern parts of Nigeria. They are known for their good meat quality and resistance to diseases.
- Yankasa Sheep: The Yankasa sheep is a large breed that is mainly found in the northern parts of Nigeria. They are raised for meat and milk production and are known for their high fertility and adaptability to harsh climatic conditions.
- Balami Sheep: The Balami sheep is a medium-sized breed that is found mainly in the northeastern parts of Nigeria. They are raised for meat and wool production and are known for their high fertility and resistance to diseases.
- Kano Brown Sheep: The Kano Brown sheep is a medium-sized breed that is found mainly in the northern parts of Nigeria. They are raised for meat and milk production and are known for their good meat quality and adaptability to harsh climatic conditions.
- Afropolitan Sheep: The Afropolitan sheep is a relatively new breed that was developed in Nigeria by crossing local breeds with imported breeds. They are known for their good meat quality and fast growth rate.
- Yankasa Sahel White Sheep: This breed is a cross between the Yankasa and Sahel White breeds. They are known for their good meat quality and are popular among livestock farmers in northern Nigeria.
- Sahel White Sheep: The Sahel White sheep is a hardy breed that is well adapted to the hot and dry conditions in the Sahel region of West Africa. They are raised mainly for meat production.
- Ouda Sheep: The Ouda sheep is a breed that is found mainly in the northern parts of Nigeria. They are raised for meat production and are known for their high fertility.
- Naeji Sheep: The Naeji sheep is a medium-sized breed that is found mainly in the southeastern parts of Nigeria. They are raised for meat production and are known for their good meat quality and high fertility.
Common Sheep Terms
- Ewe: A female sheep that is old enough to breed or has already bred and given birth to lambs.
- Ram: A male sheep that is old enough to breed.
- Lamb: A young sheep, usually under one-year-old.
- Flock: A group of sheep.
- Wool: The soft, thick, and curly hair that covers the body of sheep.
- Shearing: The process of removing wool from the sheep’s body.
- Wool Clip: The total amount of wool collected from a flock after shearing.
- Lambing: The process of giving birth to lambs.
- Cull: The process of removing unwanted or unproductive sheep from the flock.
- Grazing: The process of allowing sheep to feed on grass or other plants in a pasture or range.
- Pasture: A fenced area of land where sheep graze.
- Range: An open area of land where sheep graze without fences.
- Breeding: The process of mating ewes with rams to produce lambs.
- Lambing Percentage: The percentage of ewes that give birth to live lambs.
- Docking: The process of removing the tail of a lamb for health and hygiene reasons.
- Crutching: The process of removing the wool from the area around the sheep’s anus to prevent flystrike.
- Mutton: The meat of an adult sheep, usually over one year old.
- Wether: A castrated male sheep.
- Lambing Jug: A small, enclosed area where a ewe and her newborn lambs are kept for a few days after birth.
- Hay: Dried grass or other plants that are stored and fed to sheep during the winter when grazing is not available.
- Gestation period: the period of pregnancy, which lasts for 150 days.
Goats are remarkable ruminants that possess the ability to thrive in extreme and challenging environments. They exhibit resilience against diseases and high temperatures, enabling them to survive where other animals cannot. The small-bodied animals are raised for their meat, milk, and skin, and both males and females have horns. Goats are known to be inquisitive scavengers, and their gestation period lasts for 150 days. Some of the different types of goats are the Red Bororo (Maradi), Fulani (Sahel), Kano Brown, Nubian, and WAD goats.
Characteristics of Goats
- Agile and surefooted: Goats are incredibly nimble and can easily navigate rocky terrain and steep slopes, making them well-suited to a wide range of environments.
- Social animals: Goats are highly social animals that form strong bonds with other goats in their herd. They communicate with each other through body language, vocalizations, and scent marking.
- Curious and intelligent: Goats are naturally curious animals that love to explore their surroundings. They are also highly intelligent and have been known to solve puzzles and learn from their experiences.
- Adaptable: Goats are adaptable animals that can thrive in a variety of different climates and environments. They are able to survive in extreme heat and cold and can tolerate drought and other challenging conditions.
- Independent: Goats are relatively self-sufficient animals that are well-suited to free-ranging and grazing. They do not require as much attention or care as some other livestock species.
- Versatile: Goats are used for a variety of different purposes, including meat, milk, fiber, and as pack animals. They are also used in some cultures for religious and ceremonial purposes.
- Strong digestive system: Goats have a unique digestive system that allows them to extract nutrients from tough, fibrous plant material that other animals cannot digest. This makes them valuable for grazing on vegetation that might be otherwise wasted.
- Reproductive efficiency: Goats are highly reproductive animals that can produce multiple offspring in a single pregnancy. They have a relatively short gestation period and can breed throughout the year.
- Disease resistance: Goats have a natural resistance to many common livestock diseases and parasites. They are also less susceptible to some of the health problems that affect other livestock species, such as pneumonia and foot rot.
- Low environmental impact: Because goats are relatively small and require less land and resources than larger livestock species, they have a lower environmental impact. They are also able to graze on steep or rocky terrain that might not be suitable for other livestock, which can help to prevent soil erosion and maintain biodiversity.
Goats were one of the first animals to be domesticated and are found all over the world, with a particularly high concentration in Africa and India. They are known for their ability to thrive in harsh weather conditions. Some common goat breeds include
- West African Dwarf: This is the most common breed of goat in Nigeria. It is a small, hardy breed that is well-adapted to the hot, humid climate of the region. They are used for milk, meat, and hide production.
- Sahelian: This is a medium-sized breed of goat found in the Sahel region of West Africa. They are well-adapted to hot and dry climates and are used for meat and milk production.
- Red Sokoto (Maradi): This is a medium-sized breed of goat that is found mainly in the northern parts of Nigeria. They are known for their high meat production and are also used for milk and hide production.
- Borno Sahel White: This is a large breed of goat that is found in the northeastern part of Nigeria. They are used for meat and milk production.
- Kano Brown: This is a medium-sized breed of goat found in the northern parts of Nigeria. They are known for their high milk production and are also used for meat production.
- Nubian: This is an imported breed of goat that is found in Nigeria. They are large, long-eared goats that are used for milk production.
- Boer: This is an imported breed of goat that is found in Nigeria. They are large, muscular goats that are known for their high meat production.
- Alpine: This is an imported breed of goat that is found in Nigeria. They are medium to large-sized goats that are known for their high milk production.
- Toggenburg: This is another imported breed of goat that is found in Nigeria. They are medium-sized goats that are known for their high milk production.
- Angora: This is a breed of goat that is known for its long, curly fleece. They are mainly found in the southwestern part of Nigeria and are used for wool production.
- Buck: a male goat that is used for breeding purposes.
- Doe: a female goat that has not yet given birth.
- Kid: a baby goat, usually less than six months old.
- Wether: a castrated male goat.
- Herd: a group of goats that live and travel together.
- Grazing: the act of eating grass or other vegetation.
- Foraging: the act of searching for food, often used in reference to goats that search for their own food.
- Browsing: the act of eating leaves, twigs, and other woody vegetation.
- Hay: dried grass or other plants that are cut and stored for feeding to goats during the winter or when fresh vegetation is not available.
- Silage: fermented grass or other plants that are stored for feeding goats.
- Chaff: the husks of seeds, often left over after threshing, that are sometimes used as feed for goats.
- Concentrates: feeds that are high in energy and protein, such as grains, that are often fed to goats in addition to hay or other forage.
- Milk stand: a platform used for milking goats.
- Mastitis: an infection of the udder that can affect goats and other milk-producing animals.
- Fleece: the wool or hair that is sheared from a goat’s body.
- Hoof trimming: the act of trimming a goat’s hooves to keep them healthy and prevent injury.
- Dehorning: the removal of a goat’s horns to prevent injury to other goats or people.
- Coccidiosis: a parasitic disease that can affect goats and other animals.
- Scrapie: a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the nervous system of goats and other sheep.
- Caprine: a term used to refer to goats or goat-related things.
- Gestation period: Approximately 150 days.
Among all farm animals, pigs are the most productive. A mature sow can give birth to 8-16 litters at a time, and pigs are primarily raised for their meat and lard. Omnivorous in nature, they are exceptional at converting feed into meat, mature early, and can breed throughout the year. Pig farming requires minimal initial capital with high returns, and their gestation period lasts for 114 days. Some common types of pigs include Landrace, Large White (Yorkshire), Duroc Jersey, Large Black, Poland China, Chester White, and others.
Characteristics of Pigs
- Highly intelligent: Pigs are known for their high level of intelligence, and are capable of learning complex tasks and problem-solving.
- Omnivorous: Pigs are omnivores and can thrive on a varied diet that includes both plant and animal matter.
- Social animals: Pigs are social animals that enjoy the company of other pigs, and can form close bonds with members of their group.
- High reproductive rate: Pigs have a high reproductive rate and can produce large litters of piglets, making them a prolific livestock species.
- Efficient feed converters: Pigs are efficient at converting feed into meat and can produce a high yield of meat per unit of feed consumed.
- Resilient: Pigs are hardy animals that can adapt to a variety of environments, and are able to tolerate extreme temperatures and other harsh conditions.
- Susceptible to disease: Pigs are susceptible to a number of diseases and parasites, and require careful management to keep them healthy.
- Excellent meat quality: Pork is considered by many to be one of the most delicious meats, with a tender texture and rich flavour.
- Versatile: Pigs can be raised for meat, lard, and leather, and are also used in some cultures for religious and ceremonial purposes.
- Important for research: Pigs are commonly used in biomedical research due to their similarity to humans in terms of anatomy, physiology, and genetics.
Pigs are highly productive farm animals that are omnivorous and require a lot of food. Although not as popular as goat production, pig farming is common in many parts of the world. Some common breeds of pigs include
- Large White: Large White is one of the most popular pig breeds in Nigeria. It is a medium to large-sized breed that is known for its high growth rate, lean meat, and adaptability to different environments.
- Landrace: The Landrace pig breed is known for its large, lop ears, long body, and lean meat. It is a popular breed in Nigeria due to its high productivity and hardiness.
- Duroc: The Duroc pig breed is a large, muscular breed known for its fast growth rate and high-quality meat. They are also popular in Nigeria due to their adaptability to hot and humid climates.
- Hampshire: Hampshire pigs are medium to large-sized pigs known for their muscular build and high-quality meat. They are also popular in Nigeria due to their hardiness and adaptability to different environments.
- Pietrain: The Pietrain pig breed is known for its lean meat and excellent carcass quality. They are a relatively new breed in Nigeria, but their popularity is growing due to their high growth rate and meat quality.
- Wessex Saddleback: Wessex Saddleback is a black pig breed with a white saddle on its back. They are known for their hardiness, good mothering ability, and high-quality meat.
- Nigerian Indigenous Pig: Nigerian Indigenous Pig (NIP) is a local pig breed in Nigeria that is adapted to the tropical climate of Nigeria. They are smaller in size compared to other pig breeds but have a higher resistance to diseases and a better ability to forage for food.
- Piglet – A young pig that is less than a year old.
- Sow – A female pig that has given birth to piglets.
- Boar – A male pig that is used for breeding.
- Gilt – A young female pig that has not yet given birth.
- Farrow – The process of giving birth to a litter of piglets.
- Weaner – A young pig that has been weaned off its mother’s milk.
- Barrow – A castrated male pig that is raised for meat.
- Hog – A term used to refer to an adult pig, usually weighing over 120 pounds.
- Litter – The group of piglets born to a sow in a single birthing.
- Farrowing crate – A pen or cage used to confine a sow during farrowing.
- Ear notch – A method of identification used in pigs, where a small piece of the ear is removed.
- Backfat – The layer of fat that covers the pig’s back.
- Swine – A term used to describe all domesticated pigs.
- Feed conversion ratio – The amount of feed required to produce one pound of live weight in a pig.
- Gestation – The period of pregnancy in a sow, which lasts around 114 days.
- Runt – The smallest piglet in a litter.
- Boar taint – An unpleasant odour or taste that can be present in the meat of male pigs that have not been castrated.
- Scours – A term used to describe diarrhoea in pigs.
- Farrow-to-finish – A system of pig production where the pigs are raised from birth to slaughter on one farm.
- Pigging out – Eating too much or overindulging in food, a phrase derived from the voracious appetite of pigs.
- Gestation period: Approximately 114 days.
Rabbits can produce offspring up to four times in a year, and they are found in both temperate and tropical countries. They are raised for their meat, skin, and hair, and are easy to manage and house. They reach maturity weight in around 5-6 months, and their meat is of excellent quality. However, rabbits are prone to stress and high cannibalism rates. Examples of rabbit breeds include California White, California Red, Chinchilla, New Zealand White, Flemish Giant, Angora, Dutch Rabbit, Australia White, West African Rabbit (Giant Rat), and others.
Characteristics of Rabbits
- Prolific breeders: Rabbits are known for their high reproductive rate, and can produce multiple litters of offspring in a single year.
- Docile: Rabbits are generally calm and docile animals that are easy to handle and care for.
- Fast-growing: Rabbits grow quickly, and can reach market weight in just a few months.
- Quiet: Rabbits are generally quiet animals that do not make a lot of noise, making them a good choice for backyard or urban farming.
- Low-maintenance: Rabbits are relatively low-maintenance animals that do not require a lot of space or specialized equipment.
- Versatile: Rabbits can be raised for meat, fur, and as pets or show animals.
- Efficient feed converters: Rabbits are efficient at converting feed into meat, and require less feed than other livestock species to produce the same amount of meat.
- Good source of protein: Rabbit meat is a lean, healthy source of protein that is low in fat and cholesterol.
- Susceptible to disease: Rabbits are susceptible to a number of diseases and parasites, and require careful management to keep them healthy.
- Environmental impact: Rabbits have a low environmental impact, as they produce less waste than other livestock species and can be raised on small plots of land.
Rabbits are also productive animals, capable of producing several litters per year. Although not originally from tropical Africa, rabbits can thrive in local conditions. Some common breeds of rabbits include
- New Zealand White: This is a medium to large-sized breed of rabbit that is known for its white fur and docile temperament. It is commonly raised for meat production in Nigeria.
- California: This is a medium-sized breed of rabbit that is known for its black and white fur. It is also raised for meat production and is popular in Nigeria due to its fast growth rate and high meat yield.
- Chinchilla: This is a medium-sized breed of rabbit that has distinctive grey fur with black or silver tips. It is raised for both meat and fur production in Nigeria.
- Dutch: This is a small-sized breed of rabbit that is known for its distinctive white and black markings. It is commonly kept as a pet or used for show purposes in Nigeria.
- Flemish Giant: This is a large-sized breed of rabbit that can weigh up to 20 pounds. It is raised for meat production and is popular in Nigeria due to its high meat yield.
- Rex: This is a medium-sized breed of rabbit that has soft and velvety fur. It is commonly raised for fur production in Nigeria.
- Angora: This is a medium-sized breed of rabbit that is known for its long and silky fur. It is raised for fur production in Nigeria.
- Harlequin: This is a medium-sized breed of rabbit that has a distinctive coat pattern of alternating bands of colour. It is commonly kept as a pet or used for show purposes in Nigeria.
- Buck: A male rabbit.
- Doe: A female rabbit.
- Kit: A baby rabbit.
- Bunny: A term used to describe a young rabbit, typically used for rabbits that are less than a year old.
- Lapin: A French term for rabbit, commonly used in the culinary world.
- Hutch: A cage or enclosed area where a rabbit is kept.
- Burrow: A tunnel or underground shelter where wild rabbits live.
- Thumper: A term used to describe a rabbit that thumps its hind legs on the ground, typically as a warning to other rabbits.
- Binky: A happy jump or hop that rabbits do when they are excited or happy.
- Bunny flop: A term used to describe when a rabbit falls over and lies on its side or back.
- Furball: A clump of fur that rabbits ingest while grooming themselves.
- Litter: A group of baby rabbits born to a doe.
- Digging box: A container filled with hay or other materials that rabbits can dig and burrow in.
- Run: An enclosed outdoor area where rabbits can exercise and play.
- Hay: A type of grass that is an important part of a rabbit’s diet.
- Pellets: A type of rabbit food that is made of compressed hay and other nutrients.
- Grooming: A behaviour in which rabbits clean themselves and other rabbits by licking their fur.
- Thinning: A process of removing excess fur from a rabbit’s coat to prevent hairballs.
- Hutch cover: A protective cover that is placed over a rabbit’s hutch to protect it from the elements.
- Water bottle: A container filled with water that rabbits can drink from.
- Gestation period: Approximately 29-30 days.
Poultry is birds that are raised for their meat, eggs, or feathers, and they are found in both temperate and tropical regions. Common types of poultry birds include domestic fowl, duck, turkey, goose, and guinea fowl, among others. Domestic fowl is the most popular among them, and it is divided into two categories: local fowl and exotic fowl. Local fowls are lightweight, resilient to diseases, have a low growth rate, and produce white eggs. Exotic fowls, on the other hand, are divided into two categories: light breeders and heavy breeders. Light breeders are small in size, have an early maturity rate, and produce white-shelled eggs, while heavy breeders are large in size, have slow maturity rates, produce brown or tainted-shelled eggs, and include breeds such as Rhode Island Red and Sussex
Characteristics of Poultry
- High reproductive rate: Chickens are known for their high reproductive rate, with hens able to lay eggs on a regular basis.
- Domesticated: Chickens are one of the most widely domesticated animals in the world.
- Herbivorous: Chickens are omnivores, feeding on a diet of grains, seeds, insects, and other small animals.
- Social: Chickens are social animals and thrive in groups, developing hierarchies and social structures.
- Strong beaks and claws: Chickens have strong beaks and claws that allow them to forage for food and defend themselves.
- Flightless: Most domesticated chickens are flightless, with short wings and heavy bodies.
- Vulnerable to predators: Chickens are vulnerable to predators such as foxes, raccoons, and birds of prey.
- Strong sense of hearing: Chickens have a highly developed sense of hearing, which they use to detect predators and communicate with each other.
- Nocturnal: Chickens are typically active during the day and sleep at night.
- Can be trained: Chickens can be trained to perform simple
Poultry farming is a popular agricultural practice, with chickens being the most common type of poultry raised for meat and eggs. There are several breeds of chickens, each with distinct characteristics such as size, colour, and egg-laying abilities. Some common chicken breeds include
- Broilers: Broilers are a breed of chicken that is raised specifically for meat production. They grow quickly and are ready for slaughter at around six weeks old.
- Layers: Layers are a breed of chicken that is raised for egg production. They typically start laying eggs at around 18 to 20 weeks of age and can continue laying for up to two years.
- Cockerels: Cockerels are male chickens that are raised for meat production. They take longer to mature than broilers and are typically ready for slaughter at around 16 to 20 weeks of age.
- Rhode Island Red: Rhode Island Reds are a dual-purpose breed of chicken that are commonly raised for both meat and egg production. They are known for their hardiness and adaptability to different environments.
- Plymouth Rock: Plymouth Rocks are another dual-purpose breed of chicken that are popular in Nigeria. They are hardy, docile, and good for both meat and egg production.
- Sussex: Sussex chickens are a breed that originated in England and are popular for their meat and egg production. They are hardy and adaptable to different environments.
- Leghorn: Leghorns are a breed of chicken that is known for their high egg production. They are not commonly raised for meat production but are popular in commercial egg production facilities.
- Cornish Cross: Cornish Crosses are a hybrid breed of chicken that is commonly raised for meat production. They are known for their fast growth rate and high meat yield.
- Kuroiler: Kuroilers are a hybrid breed of chicken that was developed in India and has become popular in Nigeria. They are known for their fast growth rate and ability to produce both meat and eggs.
- Noiler: Noilers are a hybrid breed of chicken that was developed in Nigeria. They are a cross between the local Nigerian chicken and commercial broilers and are known for their hardiness and ability to produce both meat and eggs.
- Broiler: A type of chicken that is raised for meat production.
- Layer: A type of chicken that is raised for egg production.
- Rooster: A male chicken.
- Hen: A female chicken.
- Pullet: A young female chicken that has not yet started laying eggs.
- Cock: Another term for a male chicken or rooster.
- Chick: A baby chicken.
- Flock: A group of chickens.
- Incubator: A machine used to keep eggs warm and help them hatch.
- Brood: A group of chicks that are raised together.
- Hatchery: A facility that specializes in hatching and selling chicks.
- Free-range: A term used to describe chickens that are allowed to roam outside and forage for food.
- Cage-free: A term used to describe chickens that are not kept in cages.
- Organic: A term used to describe chickens that are raised without antibiotics or other chemicals.
- Antibiotic-free: A term used to describe chickens that are not given antibiotics.
- Feed: The food that chickens eat.
- Scratch: A type of feed that consists of grains and seeds.
- Coop: A shelter where chickens live.
- Nest box: A small box inside a coop where hens lay eggs.
- Perch: A wooden or metal bar inside a coop where chickens roost or sleep.
The horse, a non-ruminant mammal, is primarily bred for various purposes such as farm work, recreational riding, sports, transportation of people and goods, and for cultural events such as the “Durbar festivals” celebrated in Nigeria’s Northern states.
characteristics of horses:
- Social animals: Horses are social animals and thrive in groups. They establish strong bonds with other horses and are known for their loyalty and protection towards their herd.
- Herbivorous: Horses are herbivores, and their digestive system is designed to process fibrous plant material.
- Athleticism: Horses are athletic animals that are built for speed, endurance, and agility. They are often used in various sports such as racing, show jumping, and dressage.
- Strong instinct: Horses are instinctive animals and have a strong flight response to danger. They are also sensitive to their surroundings and have a keen sense of hearing and smell.
- Emotional intelligence: Horses have a unique ability to read human emotions and respond accordingly. They can sense fear, anxiety, and other emotions in humans.
- Communication: Horses use a range of communication methods to interact with their herd and humans, including body language, vocalizations, and facial expressions.
- Long lifespan: Horses can live up to 25-30 years or more, depending on their breed and care.
- Intelligent: Horses are intelligent animals that can learn and remember a wide range of tasks and commands.
- Grooming: Horses are naturally clean animals and spend a lot of time grooming themselves and each other. Grooming is also a way for horses to bond and establish social hierarchy within their herd.
- Strong memory: Horses have a strong memory and can remember people, places, and things for years. They can also remember complex routes and paths, making them useful for transportation and navigation purposes.
Horses are majestic animals that have been domesticated for thousands of years. There are many different breeds of horses, each with unique physical characteristics and temperaments. Some common horse breeds include
- Hausa: The Hausa breed is an indigenous horse breed in Nigeria that is commonly found in the northern part of the country. They are known for their endurance and are often used for transportation and as a workhorse.
- Yoruba: The Yoruba breed is another indigenous horse breed in Nigeria that is commonly found in the southwestern part of the country. They are known for their speed and agility and are often used for racing and ceremonial purposes.
- Sokoto Gudali: The Sokoto Gudali is a breed of horse that is found in the northern part of Nigeria. They are known for their hardiness and are often used as a workhorse in agriculture.
- Fulani: The Fulani breed is another indigenous horse breed in Nigeria that is commonly found in the northern part of the country. They are known for their speed and are often used for racing and ceremonial purposes.
- Arabian: The Arabian horse is a breed that has been imported into Nigeria and is known for its beauty and endurance. They are often used for racing and recreational riding.
- Thoroughbred: Thoroughbred is another imported horse breed that is commonly found in Nigeria. They are known for their speed and are often used for racing.
- Warmblood: The Warmblood is a breed that has been imported into Nigeria and is known for its athleticism and versatility. They are often used for dressage, show jumping, and eventing.
- Mare: A female horse that is over four years old.
- Stallion: An uncastrated male horse that is over four years old.
- Gelding: A castrated male horse.
- Foal: A baby horse that is less than a year old.
- Yearling: A horse that is between one and two years old.
- Colt: A male horse that is between two and four years old.
- Filly: A female horse that is between two and four years old.
- Pony: A small horse that is typically less than 14.2 hands high (1 hand = 4 inches).
- Draft horse: A large, heavy horse that is used for work such as pulling ploughs or wagons.
- Thoroughbred: A breed of horse that is known for its speed and is commonly used for racing.
- Quarter Horse: A breed of horse that is known for its speed and agility in short distances and is often used for rodeo events such as barrel racing.
- Warmblood: A breed of horse that is a cross between a hot-blooded horse (like a Thoroughbred) and a cold-blooded horse (like a draft horse), and is commonly used in dressage and jumping events.
- Dressage: A competitive equestrian sport in which horses and riders perform a series of movements and tests to showcase the horse’s obedience, flexibility, and balance.
- Jumping: A competitive equestrian sport in which horses and riders jump over a series of obstacles to test their speed and accuracy.
- Gallop: A fast, four-beat gait in which a horse extends its stride to cover more ground quickly.
- Canter: A three-beat gait that is slower than a gallop and faster than a trot.
- Trot: A two-beat diagonal gait that is faster than a walk and slower than a canter.
- Walk A slow, four-beat gait in which a horse moves one foot at a time.
- Bridle: The headgear used to control a horse, consisting of a bit, reins, and headstall.
- Saddle: The seat that is placed on a horse’s back to allow the rider to sit comfortably and securely while riding.