Examination Malpractice

This indicates that students use illicit tactics to pass exams and get credentials. Exam malpractice includes bringing books or other written materials into the exam room to answer questions, writing notes on the palms of your hands, watching other people work while they are taking the test, and having the examiner or other candidates dictate your answers.

Causes of Examination Malpractice

1. laziness; despite wanting to pass, many students are very unmotivated and lazy to study

2. The desire for enjoyment: some students find that they have little time for study but plenty of time for television and online searches for other things that will not contribute to their academics

3. Greed: Many examiners and invigilators demand bribes from applicants.

4. Corruption among school administrators and owners: some administrators and owners encourage cheating on exams so that their school will be known for producing good results and attracting more students; teacher incompetence and laziness; some teachers are so unwilling to teach that they have a habit of skipping lessons and making up stories in the course of those that they do attend.

5. Schools need more facilities: many need labs or lecture halls large enough for exams. Students are squeezed into a small space, allowing for copying and textbook exchange during exams.

6. Parental influence: some parents pay someone else to write their children’s exams

Effects of Examination Malpractice

1. A decline in schooling quality.

2. More experts are becoming incompetent

3. A decline in trust in public tests

4. Corruption is on the rise,  

Solutions to Examination Malpractice

1. Increasing facilities in schools

2. Students who work hard should get rewards

3. the perpetrators will get a harsh punishment

5. Examining organisations conducting external exams should choose competent and trustworthy supervisors and penalise schools that engage in examination  malpractice

WEEK 3 & 4

Sales of Banned and Contaminated

Foods prohibited from entering the country are referred to as “banned foods,” Those contaminated and hence unsuitable for human consumption are referred to as “contaminated goods.” Sales of these foods are what lead to their prohibition and contamination.

Causes of Sales of Banned and Contaminated Foods

1. Lack of respect

2. Ignorance of human life

3. a great need to succeed financially at any cost

4. the country’s poverty

5. the porous borders

6. extortion and corruption

Effects of Banned and Contaminated Foods

1. loss of innocent life

2. spread of diseases and disorders

3. A negative national reputation; 4. An increase in the budget for disease prevention

WEEK 5 & 6


Thuggery is described as a violent behaviour exhibited by ruffians to fight or intimidate the opponent of a particular individual, usually a politician,

Thuggery is related to politics, particularly in Nigeria, as shown by past

Politicians often recruit area boys to unleash terror during election campaigns or destabilise voting in favour of their master.

Causes of Thuggery

1. Desire to win an election at all costs

2. Availability of many dropout youths

3. influence of drugs

4. high level of poverty

5. Neglect of youths by parents and society

6. high level of youth unemployment

Effects of Thuggery

1. chaos in the society

2. fear of participating in the voting

3. The emergence of wrong people as leaders after voting

4. Electoral Malpractice

5. Loss of lives

6. Destruction of properties

7. Fear and tension in the land

Prevention of Thuggery

1. love for the nation

2. Politics should be played with dignity, love, and respect for the nation and other contestants. Winning an election should not be a do-or-die affair

3. stiff punishment for sponsors of thugs

4. Thugs arrested should be prosecuted and jailed if found guilty

5. Law enforcement agents should not collaborate with politicians to destabilise the nation

6. Enlightenment campaigns on the dangers of thuggery

WEEK 7 & 8


A gang might be defined as a group of close friends with strong leadership qualities that can transform their community through constructive actions and behaviours; on the other hand, a gang is a group of criminals capable of causing social unrest via criminal activity.

A gangster is a member of this kind of group.

Reasons for Forming an Bad Gang

1. Absence of parental supervision 

2. Contact with unsavoury acquaintances and classmates

3. Being exposed to subpar drama and movies,

4. A failing educational system that causes young unemployment

5. Being exposed to narcotics like heroin, cocaine, and marijuana

Effects of Bad Gang

1. An increase in crime in society

2. a surge in thugs to disrupt elections

3. an increase in armed robbers

4. The number of drug addicts might rise.

Prevention of Bad Gang

1. Youths should take part in rigorous academic pursuits

2. Youth should be exposed to excellent skill-building initiatives

3. Youths need to be made aware of the dangers of gangsterism.

4. Youth should be encouraged to participate in more sports.youths

WEEK 9 & 10

Crime Prevention

Role of Police in Curbing Crime

The Nigerian police have the authority under the constitution to uphold the law, maintain the peace, lessen fear, and provide a secure environment to improve the quality of life in Nigeria.

The role of police in National security;

1. It protects people and property; this is the function of the police in national security.

2. It aids in identifying and capturing suspicious offenders

3. It contributes to the upkeep of laws and order in society.

4. It helps resolve minor disagreements that may otherwise result in a breakdown of law and order.

5. It combats crime by both preventing it and pursuing lawbreakers vigorously.

6. It looks into criminal cases and takes suspected offenders to court.

Role of Civil Defence in Preventing Crimes

It is a paramilitary group that was given legal recognition in 2003 thanks to a law approved by the national assembly and signed into law by President Olusegun Obasanjo.

Civil defence functions in reducing crime.

1. It assists in maintaining the peace

2. involved in security guard organization registration

3. It looks over private security firm locations.

4. It coordinates private guard personnel training, workshops, and seminars.

5. It keeps a close eye on government infrastructure, sites, and projects for the three levels of government.

6. it keeps an eye out for terrorist activities, looks into them, and takes appropriate measures.

7. It evacuates populations from dangerous areas.

Roles of Armed Forces in Crime Prevention

The Nigerian armed forces are expected to repel any effort by any country to combat Nigeria by land, air, or sea, according to Section 217 of the 1999 Constitution. 

1. Defending Nigeria against foreign aggression.

2. Upholding Nigeria’s territorial integrity and protecting its borders

3. suppressing revolt and supporting social authority in their efforts to regain control;

4. The president may request military assistance if there is a significant breakdown of law and order, unrestrained violence, or anarchy.

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