Corruption has been a long-standing issue in Nigeria, with its devastating impact being felt in all aspects of the country’s economy and society. It is a problem that has plagued the country for decades and has led to a severe erosion of trust in public institutions and government officials. Corruption in Nigeria takes many forms, from petty bribery to grand corruption, and it has been a significant barrier to the country’s development and progress.

Nigeria is one of the most resource-rich countries in Africa, with vast oil reserves and a growing economy, but corruption has hindered the country’s ability to fully realize its potential. Corruption has contributed to a lack of access to basic services such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure, and has created a culture of impunity where those in power are immune from prosecution for their actions.

Despite several efforts by the government and civil society groups to curb corruption, the problem persists, and Nigeria continues to rank poorly in global corruption rankings. The fight against corruption in Nigeria has been a long and difficult battle, with progress often hindered by political and bureaucratic obstacles. However, there are still individuals and organizations working to tackle corruption in the country, and there is hope that with sustained efforts, Nigeria can overcome this issue and achieve its full potential.

Meaning of Corruption

Corruption is a widespread issue that refers to the unethical use of one’s power or influence for personal gain or advantage. This unethical behaviour can be seen in various forms such as bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, and abuse of power. In Nigeria, corruption is a pervasive issue that affects all aspects of society, both in the private and public sectors. The numerous forms of corruption, such as electoral fraud, embezzlement, and extortion, are prevalent and continue to hinder the development and progress of the nation.

Forms or Types of Corruption

  1. Extortion: Extortion refers to the illegal act of compelling someone to pay for a service or goods that should normally be provided for free. For example, when a police officer demands money at a checkpoint even though a driver’s vehicle papers are in order.
  2. Embezzlement: This involves the misappropriation of funds intended for official use and redirecting them to personal or private use. For instance, when officials in charge of a road repair contract divide the funds amongst themselves instead of using them for its intended purpose.
  3. Bribery: This involves the offering or accepting of money or other incentives in exchange for favours or influence. Both the giver and receiver of bribes can be held accountable under the law.
  4. Preferential treatment: This is also known as cronyism, which is a form of corruption in which individuals are awarded jobs, contracts, or favours not based on merit but rather on personal relationships, tribal affiliations, or unethical connections. All forms of nepotism and favouritism are considered corrupt practices.


  • Poverty: It is often the case that individuals from economically disadvantaged backgrounds may resort to corrupt behaviour as a means of escaping poverty and providing for themselves and their families.
  • Greed: An individual with insatiable desires may engage in various forms of corruption as a result of their never-ending quest for more wealth and material possessions.
  • Misaligned Social Values: When individuals prioritize personal gain over ethical conduct, it can lead to corrupt behaviour.
  • Impatience: A desire for immediate rewards can drive individuals to engage in corrupt practices, even if it means compromising their values and morals.
  • Inadequate Government Commitment: Lack of political will to address corruption can create an environment where corrupt behaviour is tolerated or even encouraged.
  • Poor Upbringing: Individuals who have not been taught the importance of integrity and honesty may be more likely to engage in corrupt behavior. A lack of proper moral and ethical education can also contribute to the prevalence of corruption.

Consequences of Corruption

  1. The nation’s reputation is negatively impacted, causing a dent in its image.
  2. Ordinary citizens suffer as a result, facing difficulties in their daily lives.
  3. The nation’s economic progress is hindered, resulting in a slowdown in growth.
  4. This situation ultimately contributes to increased poverty levels.
  5. Such circumstances also discourage values such as honesty, integrity, and the willingness to work hard.
  6. The lack of economic growth can also result in high levels of unemployment, causing further harm to society.

Prevention of Corruption

  1. Harsh penalties for corrupt political leaders and government officials must be implemented to combat corruption and ensure accountability.
  2. Assets obtained through corrupt means should be seized and distributed to those in need to address poverty and reduce economic inequality.
  3. A comprehensive education program that emphasizes civic and ethical values should be introduced in schools and other educational institutions to promote a culture of integrity and responsibility.
  4. People who exhibit honesty, integrity, and a strong work ethic should be recognized and rewarded, as these qualities are essential for building a trustworthy and productive society.
  5. The government should allow independent anti-corruption agencies, such as the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) and the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), to operate without interference, to ensure that they can impartially enforce the law against corrupt citizens.
  6. The flaunting of wealth obtained through corrupt means should be discouraged, as it undermines the values of hard work, integrity, and fairness, and can contribute to public cynicism and distrust of the government.

Consequences of Corruption on The Nation

  1. Impacts the National Reputation: Nigeria has gained a widespread reputation as a corrupt country, reflected in its ranking as one of the ten most corrupt nations by Transparency International. This has far-reaching negative consequences for all Nigerians.
  2. Hinders Economic Development: A thriving economy is impossible to achieve in a nation where corruption is prevalent.

Consequences of Corruption on Individuals:

  1. Contributes to Poverty: The incidence of corruption is directly proportional to the level of poverty in a society. The more corruption exists, the more widespread poverty becomes.
  2. Creates Hardship: Many individuals experience unnecessary difficulties due to corrupt practices, which can range from paying bribes for basic services to facing discrimination and unequal treatment in the distribution of resources. This can lead to a loss of trust in the government and a sense of powerlessness among the general population.

Consequences of Corruption on The Society 

  1. Elevation of Negative Social Behaviors: The occurrence and prevalence of undesirable social practices and conduct, such as criminal activities, drug abuse, and other forms of deviant behaviour, tends to increase with the rise of certain factors or circumstances.
  2. Joblessness: One of the major outcomes of certain economic, political, or societal developments is the loss of employment opportunities, resulting in widespread unemployment and affecting individuals and communities. This can cause financial strain and harm to the overall economy, as well as lead to a decline in the standard of living for those affected.
  3. The decline in Public Health: The rise of social vices and unemployment can also have a detrimental effect on public health, as individuals may engage in unhealthy habits or be unable to access proper medical care. This can lead to the spread of preventable diseases, and an overall decline in the health and well-being of a community.
  4. Decreased Economic Growth: Unemployment can lead to a reduction in consumer spending and a decrease in economic activity, which can hinder economic growth and limit opportunities for businesses to thrive and expand. This can have a long-term impact on a country’s economy and stability.
  5. Increase in Poverty: The loss of employment can result in a decline in income, making it difficult for individuals and families to meet their basic needs and leading to increased poverty. This can further perpetuate a cycle of unemployment, as those living in poverty may have limited access to resources and opportunities to find work.
  6. Decreased Social Cohesion: When social vices and unemployment become widespread, it can lead to a breakdown in social cohesion, as individuals may become more isolated and less likely to trust and cooperate with one another. This can undermine the stability and effectiveness of a community, and create an environment that is less supportive and less conducive to positive change.

Roles of Different Government Agencies Charged with The Prevention of Corruption

          To combat corruption, various government agencies have been established with the aim of holding accountable individuals who engage in corrupt practices. These organizations, such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), and the Code of Conduct Bureau, are tasked with ensuring that corrupt activities are effectively investigated and that those found guilty are brought to justice. Each of these agencies has a specific role to play in the fight against corruption and works together to create a corruption-free society.

EFCC (Economics and Financial Crime Commission)

Functions of EFCC:

  1. The authorities are responsible for conducting thorough investigations into financial crimes such as fee fraud and money laundering.
  2. They work collaboratively to enforce all laws related to economic and financial crimes, and ensure that all such crimes are dealt with accordingly. In addition to this, they play a key role in maintaining the integrity of the financial system and protecting it from any illegal activities.
  3. The authorities use various tools and techniques to uncover evidence of financial crimes and bring the perpetrators to justice. These techniques may include gathering financial records, conducting interviews, and working with other agencies and organizations to gather information.
  4. The enforcement of financial crime laws is crucial in creating a secure and trustworthy financial system. It helps prevent individuals and organizations from exploiting the system for their own gain and sends a clear message that such activities will not be tolerated. The authorities work closely with the financial industry, as well as other government agencies, to ensure that all relevant laws are understood and followed.
  5. The authorities also play an important role in educating the public about financial crimes and how to prevent them. This may include providing information about common scams and frauds, as well as offering advice on how to protect one’s financial information and assets. Through public education and awareness campaigns, the authorities aim to empower individuals and organizations to make informed decisions and protect themselves from financial crimes.
  6. The investigation and enforcement of financial crimes is a critical component of maintaining the stability and integrity of the financial system. The authorities work tirelessly to bring those who engage in illegal financial activities to justice and ensure that all individuals and organizations have equal access to a safe and secure financial system.

ICPC (Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Commission) 

The Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) is a government agency in Nigeria that is tasked with the responsibility of combating and preventing corruption in the country. The main function of the ICPC is to investigate allegations of corruption and to enforce anti-corruption laws and regulations. The ICPC also has the power to prosecute individuals and organizations that engage in corrupt practices and to recommend measures for improving transparency and accountability in the public sector.

The ICPC is designed to be an independent and impartial agency, free from political influence and outside interference. Its primary focus is to promote integrity and ethical behaviour, and to create a culture of transparency and accountability in the public sector. The ICPC also works closely with other government agencies and organizations to raise public awareness about corruption, and to promote good governance and public integrity.

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