Back to: Jss2 Civic Education (NVE)
Topic: Electoral Malpractices in Nigeria
WEEK: 9 & 10
Electoral malpractices in Nigeria are actions or behaviours that violate the electoral laws and guidelines established by the Nigerian Electoral Commission (INEC) during elections. The issue of electoral malpractice has remained a significant challenge in Nigeria’s democratic process and has raised concerns about the credibility of electoral outcomes. In Nigeria, electoral malpractices can take different forms, such as vote rigging, ballot box snatching, multiple voting, intimidation of voters, and manipulation of election results. These practices have often led to violence, election cancellations, and court litigations, thereby undermining the democratic principles of free, fair, and credible elections. Despite efforts by INEC and other stakeholders to curb electoral malpractices, it remains a major problem in Nigeria’s electoral process.
Meaning of Electoral Malpractices
Electoral malpractice is the violation of laws governing the conduct of elections. Alternatively, it can be understood as the unlawful constant interference in the electoral process of a country. In some groups, it is also referred to as electoral fraud.
Forms of Electoral Malpractices in Nigeria.
Electoral malpractices are a significant challenge in Nigeria’s democratic process. They undermine the credibility of elections and erode public trust in the electoral process. Some common examples of electoral malpractices in Nigeria include:
- Vote buying: This is a form of electoral malpractice where political parties or candidates offer money or other forms of material benefits to voters in exchange for their votes.
- Ballot box snatching: This is when thugs hired by political parties or candidates steal ballot boxes during elections to prevent voters from casting their votes.
- Voter intimidation: This is when voters are threatened or intimidated by political parties or candidates to prevent them from voting for their opponents.
- Rigging: This involves manipulating the electoral process to ensure that a particular candidate or political party wins the election, even if they did not win the majority of the votes.
- Voter suppression: This is when eligible voters are prevented from casting their votes through various means, such as violence, intimidation, or the manipulation of the voter registration process.
- Multiple voting: This is when a single individual casts multiple votes during an election, either by impersonation or by exploiting loopholes in the electoral process.
- Use of fake voter cards: This involves creating fake voter cards to enable non-eligible voters to cast their votes during an election.
- Election violence: This is when violence breaks out during elections, either as a result of political thuggery or clashes between rival supporters. This can cause disruption to the electoral process and intimidate voters.
- Disenfranchisement: This is when eligible voters are denied the opportunity to vote due to administrative errors or deliberate actions by political parties or officials. For example, some voters may find that their names are missing from the voter register, or that they are unable to obtain the necessary identification documents.
- Media bias: This involves the use of biased reporting or propaganda by media outlets to influence public opinion and sway voters in favour of a particular candidate or political party. This can be especially problematic in situations where the media is controlled or influenced by the government or powerful interests.
Causes of Electoral Malpractices
- Poverty: Poverty is one of the major causes of electoral malpractice in Nigeria. Due to poverty, people may resort to accepting bribes in exchange for their votes, which can lead to the manipulation of election results.
- Obtain victory at whatever cost: The desire to win at all costs is another cause of electoral malpractices in Nigeria. Politicians and their supporters may engage in vote buying, ballot stuffing, and other fraudulent activities to ensure victory.
- An inadequate level of education among both voters and candidates: Many Nigerians have limited knowledge of their electoral rights and responsibilities. This can lead to a lack of understanding of the electoral process and make them susceptible to manipulation by politicians.
- The failure to fully execute the elections laws: The failure to properly enforce electoral laws in Nigeria has also contributed to electoral malpractices. This allows politicians to engage in fraudulent activities such as ballot stuffing, voter intimidation, and manipulation of results.
- Bad economy: A weak economy can also contribute to electoral malpractices. Politicians may use their financial resources to influence voters or manipulate the election process, especially in areas where poverty is widespread.
- A high percentage of people are illiterate: Illiteracy is another cause of electoral malpractices in Nigeria. Illiterate voters may not understand the voting process, making them vulnerable to manipulation and fraud by politicians.
- Ethnic and religious differences: Nigeria is a diverse country with different ethnic and religious groups. This diversity sometimes leads to conflicts and tension during elections. Politicians may use these differences to their advantage by manipulating voters and promoting ethnic and religious biases.
- Weak political institutions: Weak political institutions, including the electoral body, can contribute to electoral malpractices. The lack of transparency, accountability and effectiveness of these institutions can create an environment for fraudulent activities.
- Violence and insecurity: Violence and insecurity during elections are common in Nigeria. Political thugs and armed groups may intimidate voters, manipulate results, and disrupt the voting process. This can make it difficult for citizens to exercise their right to vote freely and fairly.
- Lack of civic education: Many Nigerians have limited knowledge of their civic rights and responsibilities, including their rights to vote and participate in the electoral process. The lack of civic education and awareness campaigns can contribute to electoral malpractices by creating an environment where voters are easily manipulated and misled.
Ways of Preventing Electoral Malpractices in Nigeria
In order to reduce the likelihood of election fraud occurring in Nigeria, the government should implement the following measures.
- Strengthening Electoral Laws: The Nigerian government should review and amend the current electoral laws to ensure they are more robust, clear, and unambiguous. This will help to prevent electoral malpractices by providing a clear framework for the conduct of elections.
- Enhancing Voter Education: A major step in preventing electoral malpractices is to educate voters on their rights and responsibilities during elections. This includes voter registration, voting procedures, and understanding the consequences of electoral malpractices.
- Training of Election Officials: Election officials need to be adequately trained on the principles and processes of free and fair elections. This will help them understand the importance of transparency and accountability in the electoral process.
- Establishing Independent Electoral Commissions: The government should establish independent electoral commissions that are free from political interference. This will ensure the credibility of the electoral process and promote public trust.
- Ensuring Security during Elections: Security agencies should be deployed to polling stations to ensure the safety of voters and election officials. This will help to prevent violence and other forms of electoral malpractice.
- Promoting Transparency in Campaign Financing: Political parties and candidates should be required to disclose their sources of funding and expenditure. This will help to prevent the influence of money in politics, which can lead to electoral malpractices.
- Enhancing Civic Engagement: Civil society organizations and the media should be encouraged to play an active role in monitoring the electoral process. This will help to prevent electoral malpractices by providing a checks and balances mechanism.
- Eliminating Voter Intimidation: The government should take measures to eliminate voter intimidation, such as the use of violence or the threat of violence, during elections. This will help to ensure that voters are free to make their choices without fear of reprisals.
- Encouraging International Observers: International observers should be invited to monitor Nigerian elections to ensure they are free and fair. This will help to prevent electoral malpractices by providing an external oversight mechanism.
- Prosecuting Electoral Offenders: The government should ensure that electoral offenders are brought to justice. This will help to deter others from engaging in electoral malpractices, as they will be aware that they will face severe consequences.