Elements of Design

Elements of design are what we see in a design. They are the basic things to put in place in any design. They are line, shape, space, size, texture, value, and colour.


These are the linear marks made with a pen, pencil, brush, or the edge created when two edges meet. A line is a continuous dot that starts with a dot and ends with a dot.

Uses of Line as a Symbol

  • Straight lines show different feelings and types of love;
  • Curved lines show more movement and flexibility;
  • Horizontal lines give the impression of space, calm, and relaxation.
  • Vertical lines make things look taller and more elegant, dignified, formal, stable, and strong.
  • Diagonal means action, excitement, movement, and activity.
  • The line is useful in our everyday lives.
  • Writing is done on lines.
  • It is used to set up or define boundaries.
  • It is the most important part of drawing and painting.
  • It can be used as a check in your mind.
  • Lines are used to stir up feelings and love.
  • Lines are used to make things easier to see.
  • It is used to make gestures bigger and stronger.
  • It is used to connect or separate other parts of the art.
  • It is used to make or understand shapes and other visual forms.
  • Lines are used to figure out which way a movement is going.
  • Lines of all kinds

types of lines in creative Art 

Vertical line: A line that goes up or down, perpendicular to the ground, and goes up towards the sky.

Horizontal line: This is a line that goes from right to left or left to right parallel to the earth.

A zigzag line is a line that goes in and out of sharp diagonals in different directions.

Diagonal line: This line doesn’t go up or down or side to side. It is a slanted angle that is halfway between the two.

Curved line: This is a line that bends in a circle without making an angle.


A space that is analyzed and defined by how it fits in with its surroundings or how it stands out.


An object’s shape and appearance, or a description of any three-dimensional object. The shape can also be shown with light and dark shades or by painting.


This is the empty area between solid objects or between shapes and other elements in a work of art. It is all around us and can be used to arrange objects and elements in two-dimensional art like drawing and painting or in three-dimensional art like sculpture and architecture.


This is the way a shape, form, or object looks from the outside.


which is also called “tone,” is when a piece of art has both light and dark shades. Artists use to make a flat piece of art look like it has depth, mass, shape, and three dimensions.


This is how the shapes’ areas relate to each other. It is the size of an object in terms of its length and width.


This is the feeling created in the eyes by disintegrated light beams. When light waves hit your eyes, you see different colours.

Principles of Design

These are the rules that tell how elements of design should be put together to look good. Harmony, balance, proportion, variety, dominance, and rhythm are all important parts of the design.


Harmony is the way that the different parts of a piece of art fit together and work well together. This happens when one thing fits with the other. 

Balance is when all the parts of an art piece are put together in a way that gives each part the same amount of weight and attention.

Proportion is how different parts of a design are put together in the right way. In a piece of art, the parts need to be proportional to the whole. This is done by using a certain ratio. For example, when an object is close, it looks bigger, and when it’s far away, it looks smaller.

Variety is when different kinds of organic matter use their shape, colour, and other design elements to create a pleasing look.

  • Dominance

This is when a part of a piece of art is made more appealing than the other parts, or when one part gets more attention and focus than the others. 

Rhythm is how the different parts of a piece of art are put together to make the whole thing look good.

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