Health is the lack of disease. Maintaining good health is crucial because it affects every other aspect of your life. If you practice good eating habits, general body hygiene, and refrain from drug use, you are living a healthy life. You will learn how to live a healthy lifestyle in this topic.

Sanitation and its importance

In order to prevent microbial infections, sanitation is the process by which our bodies, clothes, shoes, and surroundings are kept clean at all times. It also entails maintaining cleanliness while preparing food and the proper disposal of waste, including solid waste and sewage.

Personal health

This is the level of health that includes our physical body, our mental state, and how we feel about ourselves and other people. The WHO also describes it as a person’s overall physical, mental, and social well-being, not just the absence of disease. 


Sewage is waste that is produced at home, in the workplace, or that contains liquid or water. Faeces and urine are two examples of sewage. Solid wastes are any wastes that do not contain any water. An example of solid waste is refuse.

Sewage and its disposal

It’s crucial to properly dispose of faeces and urine to prevent the spread of germs and diseases. This is due to the possibility of food contamination when flies that have been exposed to faeces and urine land on food. Never dump your urine or waste in bushes, drainages, or water sources (such as rivers, streams, ponds, etc.).

Methods Of Sewage Disposal

Any of the following methods can be used to dispose of sewage:

Pit latrine/toilet

This is the most basic type of toilet. It is constructed by excavating a sizable, deep hole in the ground. To avoid contaminating water, pit latrines should be built far from water sources. Additionally, a plank or slab should be placed over the hole to prevent flies and bad odours. Pit latrines are particularly useful in places where the water supply is insufficient. But one of the drawbacks of pit latrines is that whenever one pit fills up, a new pit needs to be dug. It may flood during the rainy season and serve as a fly and mosquito breeding ground.

Pail or bucket latrine

A pail or bucket latrine consists of a bucket with a slab on top. In Nigeria, pail or bucket latrines are commonly used. The bucket is used to collect and store urine and faeces. When utilizing a bucket latrine, the bucket must be emptied and washed at least once every three days before being reused. This is an extremely ineffective method of sewage disposal. 

Water closet (WC)

It is also referred to as a flush toilet, and in Nigeria, it is the best way to dispose of sewage. An external sewage system receives the sewage that is flushed down the toilet through a drainpipe. This type of toilet can only be used in areas where there is adequate access to water because it needs a sufficient amount of water to flush.

Composting toilet

It is uncommon for a toilet in Nigeria to remain dry. This technique of sewage disposal entails evaporating the water in the sewage and releasing it into the atmosphere through a vent system. The dried sewage is then converted into manure that may be used as fertiliser.

Refuse and its disposal

Refuse is a form of solid waste resulting from human activities. Garbage includes used paper, food scraps, bottles, nylon, and other items. Floods and other environmental calamities are caused by inappropriate waste disposal. Inside the house, garbage is frequently disposed of in a covered wastebasket. When the waste can is full, its contents are disposed of at the landfill or incinerator. Some waste materials, such as plastic, glass, paper, and metal, may also be recycled and reused.

Method Used For Waste Disposal

The following techniques or methods are used for waste disposal:


This area is designated for waste disposal. Occasionally, it is also called a dump. The refuse is left on the land for a period of time before being converted into manure, buried, or burnt. In Nigeria, this method of waste disposal is the most common.


This is used in the incineration process, which involves the burning of refuse. It is feasible to dispose of waste in an incinerator instead of a landfill. Air (pollutants that are gases) and ash are then released into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion of trash.


This is the process of utilising aerobic microbes to decompose organic matter and solid waste. During presorting, non-compostable materials are eliminated from the waste.

In order for the garbage to decompose and create humus, it is put on the ground. After approximately three weeks, the product is ready for ventilation, combined with additives, packaging, and sale.

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