Back to: Jss1 Physical and Health Education (BST)
Topic: Food, Nutrition and Health
WEEK: 9 & 10
Food, nutrition, and health are three interconnected aspects that play an essential role in human life. The food we consume provides us with the energy and nutrients necessary for our body’s growth, maintenance, and repair. Nutrition, on the other hand, is the science that studies the relationship between food and the body, including how nutrients are processed, absorbed, and utilized by the body. And health is the state of being physically, mentally, and socially well, which is influenced by the food we eat and the nutrients we consume.
The relationship between food, nutrition, and health is complex and multidimensional. The food we consume not only affects our physical health but also our mental and emotional well-being. It can impact our mood, energy levels, and cognitive function. In contrast, poor nutrition can lead to malnutrition, obesity, and chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
Therefore, it is essential to understand the relationship between food, nutrition, and health to make informed decisions about our dietary choices. Proper nutrition can help us maintain a healthy weight, improve our overall health, and prevent chronic diseases. A balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats can provide us with the nutrients we need to support optimal health.
Meaning of Food
Food refers to any substance that is consumed by living organisms to provide the necessary nutrients and energy for their survival, growth, and overall well-being. Food can be in the form of solids, liquids, or even gases, and is typically derived from plants, animals, or other sources. The nutrients found in food include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and fibre, which are all essential for maintaining good health and preventing various diseases. In addition to its nutritional value, food also plays an important role in cultural and social contexts, often serving as a means of celebrating special occasions and bringing people together.
Types of food
Foods can be grouped into:
The above list groups foods into eight categories based on their characteristics and nutritional value. Here is a brief explanation of each category:
- Cereals: These are grains that are high in carbohydrates, fiber, and various nutrients like vitamins and minerals. They form a significant part of the human diet, especially in developing countries where they are often the main staple food.
- Tubers: These are underground plant parts that are high in carbohydrates and other nutrients. They are a significant source of energy for many people worldwide and are often used as a substitute for cereals.
- Poultry: This category refers to the edible meat from birds, which is high in protein, vitamins, and minerals. Poultry is a popular food choice worldwide due to its accessibility, affordability, and versatility.
- Fish: Fish is an excellent source of high-quality protein, omega-3 fatty acids, and essential nutrients like vitamin D and selenium. It is a popular food worldwide, especially in coastal regions, and is often recommended as a healthy dietary choice.
- Drinks and beverages: This category includes various types of drinks and beverages that people consume for their nutritional and social benefits. Examples include tea, coffee, fruit juice, and wine, which all provide different health benefits and play significant roles in social and cultural contexts.
- Meat: This category refers to the edible flesh of animals, which is a good source of protein, iron, and other essential nutrients. Examples include cow meat, goat meat, pork, and snail, which are popular food choices worldwide.
- Vegetables: Vegetables are plant parts that are high in fibre, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. They come in various shapes and sizes, and examples include onion, carrot, lettuce, and broccoli.
- Legumes: Legumes are plants that produce seeds or pods that are high in protein, fibre, and various nutrients. Examples include beans, soya beans, and green peas, which are often used as a meat substitute in vegetarian and vegan diets.
- Fruits: Fruits are a diverse group of edible plant parts that are high in fibre, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. They are an essential component of a healthy diet and are associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Examples of fruits include apples, bananas, oranges, berries, and melons.
- Dairy: Dairy products are foods made from milk, such as cheese, yoghurt, and butter. They are an excellent source of calcium, protein, and other essential nutrients. However, they can also be high in saturated fat and calories, so it’s important to choose low-fat options and consume them in moderation.
- Nuts and Seeds: Nuts and seeds are high in healthy fats, protein, fibre, vitamins, and minerals. They are a nutrient-dense food that can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Examples include almonds, peanuts, cashews, sunflower seeds, and chia seeds.
- Oils and Fats: Oils and fats are essential components of a healthy diet and provide the body with energy, insulation, and protection. However, not all oils and fats are created equal, and it’s important to choose healthy options like olive oil, avocado oil, and nuts, which are rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
- Sweeteners: Sweeteners are substances added to food and beverages to make them taste sweet. They can be natural or artificial, and their excessive consumption has been linked to various health problems like obesity and diabetes. Examples include sugar, honey, and artificial sweeteners like aspartame and saccharin.
Classes of Food Nutrients
Food nutrients are nourishing substances in food. They are carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oil, vitamins, mineral salts, and water.
Food Classification, Sources and Functions
|Carbohydrates||Fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products||Provide energy for the body and help maintain a healthy digestive system|
|Proteins||Meat, fish, eggs, beans, and nuts||Build and repair tissues in the body, as well as produce enzymes and hormones|
|Fats||Butter, oil, nuts, and meat||Provide energy, store energy, and help absorb certain vitamins and minerals|
|Vitamins||Fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and grains||Help with various bodily functions, such as maintaining healthy skin and eyes, forming red blood cells, and boosting the immune system|
|Minerals||Meat, fish, dairy products, grains, and vegetables||Help with bone and muscle development, maintain a healthy heartbeat, and keep the body’s fluids balanced|
|Water||Water, fruits, and vegetables||Essential for bodily functions such as digestion, transporting nutrients, and regulating body temperature|
Importance of Food
Food is an essential part of our daily lives, providing the necessary nutrients for growth, development, and maintenance of our body. The following are ten important reasons why food is vital:
- Provides Energy: Food is the primary source of energy for our body, which is necessary to carry out various functions like breathing, digesting, and maintaining body temperature.
- Supports Growth and Development: Food provides nutrients that are essential for growth and development, especially during childhood and adolescence. Nutrients like protein, calcium, and vitamins support the growth of bones, muscles, and organs.
- Boosts Immune System: A healthy and balanced diet provides the necessary vitamins and minerals that help boost the immune system, making our body more resistant to infections and diseases.
- Maintains Weight: Food helps maintain a healthy weight by providing the necessary calories to the body. A balanced diet that is rich in nutrients and low in calories can help prevent obesity and related health problems.
- Improves Brain Function: Food provides nutrients that are essential for brain function, memory, and concentration. A healthy diet can help improve cognitive function, reduce the risk of dementia, and improve mood.
- Prevents Chronic Diseases: A balanced diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins can help prevent chronic diseases like heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer.
- Improves Digestion: Food provides fibre, which is essential for maintaining digestive health. A diet rich in fibre can help prevent constipation, diarrhoea, and other digestive problems.
- Enhances Skin Health: Food provides vitamins and minerals that are essential for maintaining healthy skin. A diet rich in antioxidants can help prevent skin damage, reduce signs of ageing, and promote a healthy glow.
- Supports Mental Health: A balanced diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, and magnesium can help improve mood, reduce stress, and prevent depression.
- Promotes Overall Well-being: A healthy and balanced diet that is rich in nutrients can help promote overall well-being by providing the necessary vitamins, minerals, and other essential nutrients that are necessary for a healthy body and mind.