Back to: Jss2 Home Economics (PVS)
Topic: Fundamental Human Rights
Fundamental human rights are a set of basic rights and freedoms that are inherent to all human beings, regardless of their nationality, race, gender, religion, or any other status. These rights are considered to be universal, inalienable, and indivisible, and are essential for human dignity, freedom, and justice.
The concept of fundamental human rights is based on the idea that every individual has inherent worth and value, and is entitled to certain rights and protections that cannot be taken away by any government, group, or individual. These rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to freedom of expression, association, and religion; as well as economic, social, and cultural rights, such as the right to education, healthcare, and an adequate standard of living.
Meaning of Right
The term “right” generally refers to a moral or legal entitlement to something. It can also refer to the direction opposite of left, or to something that is correct or accurate.
Aright may be seen as a claim or privilege that an individual or group has, either by virtue of their inherent human dignity or by virtue of a social or legal contract. This can include rights such as the right to life, liberty, and property, as well as more specific rights such as the right to vote, the right to free speech, or the right to due process of law.
The concept of rights is central to many philosophical and political debates, and different theories of rights can vary in their scope, content, and justification. Some theories argue that rights are natural or inherent, while others see them as socially constructed or derived from legal systems. Ultimately, the meaning and scope of rights depending on the cultural, political, and legal context in which they are recognized and enforced.
fundamental Rights of Every Nigerian Person.
The fundamental rights of every Nigerian person are enshrined in Chapter IV of the Nigerian Constitution (1999). These rights are:
- Right to life: Every person has the right to life, and no one shall be deprived of it except in accordance with the law.
- Right to the dignity of the human person: Every person is entitled to respect for the dignity of his person and accordingly no person shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment.
- Right to personal liberty: Every person has the right to personal liberty and no person shall be deprived of such liberty except in accordance with the law.
- Right to a fair hearing: Every person is entitled to a fair hearing in public within a reasonable time by an impartial court or tribunal.
- Right to private and family life: Every person has the right to respect his private and family life, home, and correspondence.
- Right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion: Every person has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, including the freedom to change his religion or belief.
- Right to freedom of expression and the press: Every person has the right to freedom of expression, including the freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart ideas and information without interference.
- Right to peaceful assembly and association: Every person has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association, including the right to form and belong to any trade union or other association for the protection of his interests.
- Right to freedom of movement: Every person has the right to freedom of movement and to reside in any part of Nigeria.
- Right to participate in government: Every citizen of Nigeria has the right to participate in the government of his country, either directly or through freely chosen representatives.
- Right to acquire and own property: Every person has the right to acquire and own immovable property in any part of Nigeria.
- Right to fair and adequate compensation: Every person whose property is acquired for public use or in the interest of the public shall be adequately compensated.
- Right to participate in cultural life: Every person has the right to participate in the cultural life of his community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
- Right to education: Every person has the right to education, including free, compulsory, and universal primary education and the government shall ensure that every Nigerian child has access to free basic education.
- Right to work and employment: Every person has the right to work and engage in any economic activity of his choice, and to be free from discrimination in employment on the basis of sex, religion, or ethnic group.
- Right to social security and welfare: Every person has the right to social security and welfare, including the provision of basic necessities of life such as food, clothing, and shelter.
- Right to healthcare: Every person has the right to healthcare, including access to basic medical care and the provision of adequate medical facilities.
- Right to a clean and healthy environment: Every person has the right to a clean and healthy environment, and the government shall protect and improve the environment for present and future generations.
Basic Principles of Child’s Right
Children’s rights refer to the entitlements and freedoms that all children are entitled to by virtue of their age and status as minors. The basic principles of child’s rights are as follows:
- Non-discrimination: All children have the right to be treated equally, without discrimination of any kind. This includes race, religion, gender, and disability.
- Best interests of the child: The best interests of the child should be the primary consideration in all decisions and actions that affect them.
- Right to life, survival, and development: Children have the right to life, survival, and development, including access to basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare.
- Respect for the views of the child: Children have the right to express their views, and these views should be given due weight in accordance with their age and maturity.
- Parental responsibilities and state support: Parents have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child, and the state should provide support and assistance to parents in fulfilling this responsibility.
- Protection from all forms of violence: Children have the right to protection from all forms of violence, abuse, exploitation, and neglect.
- Respect for the child’s privacy: Children have the right to privacy, and their personal information should be protected.
- Access to information and education: Children have the right to access information and education, and the state should ensure that this is available to all children, regardless of their background or circumstances.
- Participation in cultural and social life: Children have the right to participate in cultural and social life, and the state should promote and protect their access to these activities.
- Special protection for vulnerable children: Children who are particularly vulnerable, such as those who are refugees or who have disabilities, require special protection and assistance.