Back to: Jss3 Home Economics (PVS)
Topic: Garment Construction
WEEK: 9 & 10
Garment construction is the process of transforming fabric into a finished garment. It involves a series of steps that begin with the design of a garment and end with the final product. The process can be broken down into three main stages: patternmaking, cutting, and sewing.
- Patternmaking: Patternmaking is the process of creating a blueprint or template for a garment. This is done by first taking measurements of the body and then transferring those measurements onto paper or fabric to create a flat pattern. The pattern is then modified and adjusted to achieve the desired fit and style.
- Cutting: Once the pattern is finalized, it is used to cut the fabric into the necessary pieces. Careful attention is paid to the grain of the fabric, which must be aligned properly to ensure the garment hangs and drapes correctly. The cutting process can be done manually or with the use of computerized cutting machines.
- Sewing: The final stage of garment construction involves sewing the fabric pieces together. This is done with a sewing machine or by hand, depending on the complexity of the garment and the desired finish. The seams are finished to prevent fraying and the garment is pressed to give it a professional appearance.
Other techniques may be employed during the garment construction process, such as adding details like buttons, zippers, or decorative stitching. Quality control is also an important aspect of garment construction, as each step must be carefully executed to ensure the final product meets the desired standards.
Seam finishes refer to techniques used to prevent the raw edges of fabric from fraying or unravelling. They are used to give a professional and neat appearance to a garment or other sewn item. Here are ten advantages and disadvantages of various seam finishes:
Advantages of Seam Finishes
- Prevents fraying: Seam finishes help prevent the raw edges of fabric from fraying or unravelling, which can extend the life of a garment.
- Provides a neat finish: Seam finishes create a neat, clean edge that looks professional and polished.
- Increases durability: A good seam finish can increase the durability of a garment, especially in areas that are likely to undergo a lot of wear and tear.
- Helps with washing: Some seam finishes, such as serging or overlocking, can help prevent the fabric from unravelling in the wash.
- Adds structure: Certain seam finishes, such as binding or Hong Kong finishes, can add structure and support to a garment.
- Improves appearance: A well-executed seam finish can improve the appearance of a garment, especially when the finish is visible on the outside.
- Offers customization: There are many different types of seam finishes, which means you can choose one that complements the fabric and style of your garment.
- Conceals raw edges: Seam finishes can help conceal raw edges and prevent them from peeking out or causing discomfort.
- Allows for creativity: Some seam finishes, such as flat-felled or French seams, can be decorative and add a unique touch to a garment.
- Saves time: While seam finishes do require some extra time and effort, they can save time in the long run by preventing fraying and ensuring a garment lasts longer.
Disadvantages of Seam Finishes
- Time-consuming: Some seam finishes, such as French seams or Hong Kong finishes, can be time-consuming and require extra effort.
- Requires skill: Certain seam finishes, such as welt or bound seams, require a higher level of skill and precision to execute properly.
- Adds bulk: Some seam finishes, such as bias binding or piping, can add bulk to a garment and make it feel heavier or less comfortable.
- Limits flexibility: Certain seam finishes, such as flat-felled seams, can limit the flexibility of a garment and make it less comfortable to wear.
- Increases cost: Some seam finishes, such as bias binding or Hong Kong finishes, require extra fabric or materials, which can increase the cost of making a garment.
- Requires extra equipment: Some seam finishes, such as serging or overlocking, require specialized equipment that may not be readily available to all sewers.
- Limits seam allowances: Certain seam finishes, such as French seams, require a smaller seam allowance, which can limit the amount of fabric you have to work with.
- Can be bulky on lightweight fabrics: Some seam finishes, such as bias binding or piping, can be bulky and create visible ridges on lightweight fabrics.
- May not be suitable for all fabrics: Some seam finishes, such as flat-felled seams or bound seams, may not be suitable for all fabrics and can cause puckering or distortion.
- Can be difficult to undo: Once a seam finish is applied, it can be difficult to undo and rework if there is an issue with the construction of the garment.
Seam Finishes Processes
Seam finishes are the various ways to treat the raw edges of fabric seams to prevent them from fraying and unravelling. The type of seam finish you choose will depend on the fabric type, the project, and your personal preference. Here are some common seam finishes processes:
- Zigzag stitch: This is the most basic seam finish and can be done with a sewing machine or by hand. It involves sewing a zigzag stitch over the raw edges to prevent fraying.
- Overcast stitch: This is similar to the zigzag stitch, but instead of a zigzag pattern, it uses a straight stitch and then a loop stitch to enclose the raw edge.
- French seam: This is a clean and neat way to finish seams that will be seen from both sides of the garment. It involves sewing the seam wrong side to the wrong side, trimming the seam allowance, and then folding the fabric right side to the right side and sewing again.
- Bias binding: This involves using a strip of bias-cut fabric to encase the raw edge of the seam. The bias binding can be sewn by machine or by hand.
- Pinked edge: This is a quick and easy finish that involves cutting the raw edges with pinking shears, which create a zigzag edge that helps prevent fraying.
- Hong Kong finish: This is a more advanced seam finish that involves encasing the raw edge with bias tape or a strip of fabric that has been cut on the bias.
- Bound seam: This is similar to the Hong Kong finish, but instead of using bias tape or a strip of fabric, a separate piece of fabric is used to enclose the raw edge.
There are many other seam finishing techniques, but these are some of the most common. It’s important to choose the right seam finish for your project to ensure that it looks neat and professional and that the seams hold up over time.
Edge finishing refers to the process of finishing or binding the raw edges of fabric to prevent them from fraying and unraveling. Raw edges are the unfinished edges of fabric that are left after cutting. These edges are prone to fraying and can cause clothing to look messy and worn out.
There are several methods of edge finishing in clothing, including:
- Overlock Stitch: This is a stitch that uses multiple threads to sew over the edge of the fabric, preventing it from fraying. It is commonly used in knit fabrics.
- Zigzag Stitch: This stitch is used to prevent the edges of woven fabrics from fraying. It creates a zigzag pattern that helps hold the edges of the fabric together.
- Bias Binding: This is a strip of fabric that is cut on the bias (diagonal) grain of the fabric. It is used to encase the raw edges of the fabric, giving a neat finish.
- French Seam: This is a method of finishing the seam of a garment so that the raw edges are completely enclosed. It is commonly used on delicate fabrics.
- Hemming: This is the process of folding and stitching the bottom edge of a garment to prevent fraying.
Uses of Edges Finishing
- Hemming: Hemming is the process of folding and sewing the edge of a garment to prevent fraying and give it a finished look. It is commonly used to finish the bottom of skirts, dresses, and pants.
- Overcasting: Overcasting is a technique where the raw edge of a fabric is sewn over with a zigzag stitch. This method is commonly used on lightweight fabrics like chiffon, organza, and silk.
- Bias binding: Bias binding is a strip of fabric that is cut on the bias (diagonal) and used to cover raw edges. It is commonly used on necklines, armholes, and cuffs.
- French seams: French seams are a technique where the raw edges of a seam are enclosed inside a folded seam allowance. This method creates a clean, polished finish on the inside of a garment and is commonly used on sheer or lightweight fabrics.
- Flat-felled seams: Flat-felled seams are a technique where the raw edges of a seam are folded and sewn down to create a strong, durable seam. This method is commonly used on denim and other heavy fabrics.
- Bound seams: Bound seams are a technique where the raw edges of a seam are enclosed inside a strip of fabric. This method creates a neat, finished look and is commonly used on heavy fabrics.
- Pinking: Pinking is a technique where the raw edge of a fabric is cut with pinking shears, which creates a zigzag edge that helps prevent fraying. This method is commonly used on lightweight fabrics like cotton and linen.
- Rolled hem: A rolled hem is a tiny, narrow hem that is often used on lightweight fabrics like chiffon, silk, and organza. It is created by folding and rolling the fabric over itself, then sewing it in place.
- Bias tape: Bias tape is a strip of fabric that is cut on the bias and used to finish raw edges. It is commonly used on curved edges like armholes and necklines.
- Serger stitches: A serger is a sewing machine that creates a specialized stitch that simultaneously trims and finishes the raw edge of a fabric. This method is commonly used on knit fabrics and creates a clean, professional finish.
Types of Edge Finishing
- Hemming: Hemming is the process of folding and stitching the raw edge of the fabric to create a neat finish. This technique is often used to finish the bottom of skirts, pants, and dresses.
- Binding: Binding is a technique that involves covering the raw edge of the fabric with another piece of fabric. This creates a durable and attractive finish that can be used on the edges of clothing like necklines, armholes, and cuffs.
- Zigzag: Zigzag finishing involves using a special sewing machine stitch that creates a zigzag pattern along the edge of the fabric. This technique is often used on stretchy fabrics like knits to prevent fraying and to add a decorative touch.
- French seam: French seams are a type of finishing that creates a clean, polished look. They are made by enclosing the raw edge of the fabric within the seam, so there is no visible stitching on the outside.
- Overlock: Overlock finishing involves using an overlocking machine to stitch and trim the edge of the fabric simultaneously. This technique creates a strong, durable finish and is often used on knit fabrics.
- Rolled hem: Rolled hems are created by rolling the edge of the fabric and stitching it in place. This technique is often used on lightweight fabrics like silk and chiffon to create a delicate, feminine finish.
- Bias binding: Bias binding is a technique that involves cutting a strip of fabric on the bias (diagonal) grain and using it to cover the raw edge of the fabric. This creates a durable and attractive finish that is often used on curved edges like necklines and armholes.
Points to Consider in Choosing an Edge Finishing
When choosing an edge finishing, there are several factors to consider to achieve the desired look and function of the finished product. Here are some points to consider:
- Function: Consider the intended use of the finished product. Will the edges be exposed to wear and tear or sharp objects? If so, choose a durable edge finishing that can withstand the stress.
- Aesthetics: Choose an edge finishing that complements the overall design of the product. Some edge finishing options can add an elegant or modern touch to the final product.
- Material: The type of material used in the product will influence the choice of edge finishing. For example, fabric edges may require a different edge finishing technique than wood or metal edges.
- Cost: The cost of edge finishing may vary depending on the chosen technique. Consider the budget and the importance of the edge finishing to the overall appearance and function of the final product.
- Skill level: Some edge finishing techniques require a higher level of skill and expertise. Consider the skill level of the person performing the edge finishing, or the availability of professionals who can perform the chosen technique.
- Time: Some edge finishing techniques require more time and effort to complete than others. Consider the timeline for completing the final product and choose a technique that fits within the desired timeframe.
- Maintenance: Consider the maintenance required for the chosen edge-finishing technique. Some may require regular upkeep to maintain their appearance and function.
the term “facing” refers to a piece of fabric that is sewn onto the inside of a garment, typically at the neckline, armholes, or other openings, to reinforce the edges and provide a finished look. Facings are often cut from a contrasting or coordinating fabric to add a decorative element to the garment.
Facings are used in a variety of clothing items, such as blouses, dresses, jackets, and coats. They can be sewn in place by machine or by hand and may be finished with topstitching or other decorative techniques.
The facing is usually cut to the same shape as the garment’s opening and is then sewn onto the garment’s right side, with the edges turned under and stitched in place. This creates a neat finish on the inside of the garment while allowing the opening to maintain its shape and structure.
Uses of Facing in Garment Construction
Facing is a technique used in garment construction to provide a neat finish to the edges of a garment. It is a separate piece of fabric that is attached to the garment’s edges, usually around the neckline, armholes, and waistline. Here are ten uses of facing in garment construction:
- Neckline facing: A facing is used to finish the neckline of a garment, giving it a clean and professional look.
- Armhole facing: Facing is also used to finish the armholes of a garment, preventing them from stretching out of shape.
- Waistline facing: A facing can be used to finish the waistline of a skirt or pants, helping to create a smooth and streamlined silhouette.
- Hem facing: A facing can be used to finish the hem of a garment, creating a neat and clean edge.
- Button placket facing: A facing can be used on the inside of a button placket to hide the raw edges of the fabric and create a professional-looking finish.
- Pocket facing: A facing can be used on the inside of a pocket to hide the raw edges of the fabric and create a clean and finished look.
- Collar facing: A facing is used on the inside of a collar to create a neat and tidy finish.
- Cuff facing: A facing can be used on the inside of a cuff to create a professional-looking finish and prevent the cuff from fraying.
- Zipper facing: A facing can be used on the inside of a zipper to hide the raw edges of the fabric and create a clean and professional look.
- Vent facing: A facing can be used on the inside of a vent to hide the raw edges of the fabric and create a neat and finished look..
GUIDELINES FOR ATTACHING FACING
Attaching facings is an important step in garment construction that helps to finish the edges of a garment and give it a professional look. Here are some guidelines for attaching facings:
- Choose the right fabric: When attaching facings, it’s important to choose a fabric that is compatible with the main fabric of the garment. The facing fabric should be of the same weight and drape as the main fabric to ensure that the finished garment hangs correctly.
- Cut the facing pieces accurately: To ensure that the facings fit properly, it’s important to cut them accurately. Use a sharp pair of scissors and take your time to cut the pieces precisely according to the pattern instructions.
- Mark the facing pieces: It’s a good idea to mark the facing pieces to ensure that they are attached in the right place. Use a tailor’s chalk or a fabric marker to mark the seam lines and any other important points.
- Staystitch the edges: Before attaching the facings, it’s important to staystitch the edges of the garment to prevent them from stretching out of shape. Staystitching is a row of stitches that is sewn just inside the seam line.
- Pin the facings in place: Pin the facings in place, right sides together, and sew them to the garment using the seam allowance specified in the pattern instructions.
- Clip the curves: If the facing has curved edges, clip the curves to allow the fabric to lie flat. Be careful not to clip too close to the stitching or the fabric may fray.
- Understitch the facings: Understitching is a technique that helps to keep the facing from rolling to the outside. Sew the facing to the seam allowance close to the stitching line, with the facing fabric facing away from the garment fabric.
- Press the facings: Finally, press the facings to make them lie flat and give the garment a professional finish. Use a pressing cloth to protect the fabric and avoid scorching.
Types of Facing
Facing refers to a technique used in sewing to finish the raw edges of a garment or other fabric item. The facing is an additional layer of fabric sewn to the edge of the garment, which is then turned to the inside and secured in place. This technique provides a clean and professional finish to the garment’s edges.
Here are some common types of facings:
- Shaped Facing: This type of face is cut to match the shape of the garment’s neckline or armhole. It is often used in blouses and dresses, where the neckline or armhole is curved.
- Extended Facing: An extended facing is a strip of fabric that is cut to the same shape as the garment’s edge but is wider. The extra width is then folded over and sewn down to create a clean finish. This type of face is commonly used in jackets and coats.
- Bias Facing: A bias facing is made from fabric that has been cut on the bias, which is a 45-degree angle to the fabric’s grain line. This type of facing is flexible and can be used on curved edges, such as necklines and armholes.
- Shaped Bias Facing: A shaped bias facing is cut on the bias to match the shape of the neckline or armhole, providing a clean finish on curved edges.
- Hong Kong Binding: Hong Kong binding is a facing technique that involves using bias tape to finish the raw edges of a garment. The bias tape is sewn to the edge of the fabric and then folded over to the inside to create a clean finish. This technique is often used in tailored garments, such as blazers and suits.
Cross Way Strips
Crossway strips refer to strips of fabric that cross over each other at a diagonal angle, creating a criss-cross pattern. These strips can be used in various ways in clothing design, such as in the straps of a sundress or the bodice of a blouse.
Crossway strips not only add an interesting design element to clothing, but they can also provide functional benefits such as added support or adjustable fit. For example, in a bra with criss-cross straps, the straps can be adjusted to provide a custom fit and better support for the wearer.
Steps in The Cutting of Cross Way Strips
- Start by measuring and marking the width of the strips you want to cut. You can use a ruler or a measuring tape to ensure accuracy.
- Use sharp fabric scissors to cut along the marked lines. It’s important to use sharp scissors to prevent the fabric from fraying or getting snagged.
- If you need to cut multiple strips, you can stack the fabric layers and cut through them all at once. Just make sure the layers are aligned properly and the edges are straight.
- After cutting the strips, you may want to finish the edges to prevent fraying. You can use a serger or a zigzag stitch on a sewing machine, or you can use a fabric glue or fray check to seal the edges.
- Finally, fold and store the strips neatly, ready to be used in your project.
Joining Crossway Strips
Joining Crossway strips refers to the process of connecting two or more strips of Crossway (also known as interlocking) tiles together to create a larger surface area for flooring. Here are the steps to follow when joining Crossway strips:
- Lay out the Crossway tiles in the desired pattern and direction. Ensure that the tiles are clean, dry, and free of any debris.
- Take the first strip and align it with the adjacent strip, making sure that the interlocking tabs and slots are aligned.
- Press down on the edges of the strip to secure the interlocking tabs and slots together. Use a rubber mallet or a tapping block to ensure a tight fit.
- Continue connecting the rest of the strips until you have reached the desired size of the flooring area.
- Check the joints for any gaps or inconsistencies. If necessary, adjust the tiles or use a utility knife to trim the edges for a perfect fit.
- Once you have joined all the Crossway strips, clean the surface with a damp cloth and allow it to dry completely before walking on it.
Fullness in clothing construction refers to the extra fabric added to a garment to create shape, volume, and movement. Fullness is often added to areas such as sleeves, skirts, and bodices to create a more flattering silhouette or to achieve a specific style.
There are different ways to add fullness to a garment. One common method is gathering, which involves sewing two or more layers of fabric together and then pulling on one layer to create small folds. Gathering can be used to add fullness to sleeves, waistlines, and skirts.
Another method of adding fullness is pleating. Pleating involves folding the fabric and then pressing it to create permanent folds. Pleats can be used to add fullness to skirts or create visual interest in other areas of the garment.
Fullness can be achieved through the use of darts. Darts are small triangular-shaped folds that are sewn into the fabric to create shape and fullness in specific areas, such as the bust or waistline.
Fullness is an important consideration in clothing construction as it can greatly impact the overall look and fit of a garment. Careful attention to fullness can help create a garment that is comfortable, flattering, and stylish.
Types of Fullness
- Gathered Fullness: This type of fullness is created by gathering fabric at the top and attaching it to a narrower area. It can be created by using shirring, elastic, or pleats. Gathered fullness is often used in skirts, sleeves, and bodices.
- Box Pleat Fullness: Box pleat fullness is created by folding fabric in a specific way to create a box-like shape. This type of fullness is often used in skirts and dresses, and it can create a structured and formal look.
- Knife Pleat Fullness: Knife pleats are created by folding fabric in one direction and pressing it flat. This type of fullness is often used in skirts and dresses and can create a more fluid and flowing look compared to box pleats.
- Circular Fullness: Circular fullness is created by cutting fabric in a circular shape. This type of fullness is often used in skirts and dresses and can create a very full and flowing look.
- Bias Cut Fullness: Bias cut fullness is created by cutting fabric on the bias (a 45-degree angle to the grainline) rather than straight. This type of fullness can create a more fluid and flowing look in a garment.
- Godet Fullness: Godet fullness is created by inserting triangular or diamond-shaped pieces of fabric into a garment. This type of fullness is often used in skirts and dresses and can create a flared or voluminous look.
- Puffed Fullness: Puffed fullness is created by adding extra fabric in a certain area, often with gathering or shirring. This type of fullness is often used in sleeves and can create a dramatic or romantic look
Uses of Fullness
- Comfort: Fullness can be added to a garment to provide comfort and ease of movement. This is particularly important in clothing such as skirts, dresses, and trousers where the wearer needs to be able to move freely without feeling restricted.
- Style: Fullness can also be added to a garment for aesthetic purposes, to create a certain silhouette or style. For example, a full skirt can create a feminine, retro look, while a blouse with full sleeves can create a romantic or bohemian feel.
- Fit: Fullness can be used to improve the fit of a garment. For example, a blouse or dress with gathers at the bust can accommodate different bust sizes more easily.
- Functionality: Fullness can also be added to a garment for functional reasons. For example, a raincoat may have fullness added to the back to allow for ease of movement and to ensure that the coat does not restrict the wearer’s range of motion.
- Fabric Efficiency: Fullness can be used to make efficient use of fabric. For example, a skirt or dress with a circular or gathered skirt can use fabric more efficiently than a straight-cut skirt.
Tucks are a type of decorative and functional sewing technique in clothing construction. Tucks are created by folding fabric and sewing it in place to create a raised ridge or pleat.
Tucks can serve different purposes in clothing construction. They can be used for decorative purposes to add interest and texture to a garment, or they can be used to shape a garment to fit the body better.
There are different types of tucks that can be used in clothing construction, including:
- Pin tucks: These are narrow tucks that are typically spaced close together. They are created by folding the fabric and sewing a line of stitching close to the fold.
- Box pleats: These are larger tucks that are usually used to add fullness to a garment. They are created by folding the fabric in a specific way and then sewing the fold in place.
- Inverted pleats: These tucks are created by folding the fabric in such a way that the pleat is folded towards the centre of the garment rather than away from it.
- Release tucks: These are tucks that are sewn in place and then released to add fullness to a garment.
Uses of Tucks
Tucks are folds of fabric that are stitched down to create a decorative or functional element in garment construction. They are used for various purposes in garment design and construction. Here are some common uses of tucks in garment construction:
- Decorative Detail: Tucks can be used as a decorative detail to add visual interest to a garment. They can be placed in a symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern on the garment, depending on the design aesthetic.
- Shape and Fit: Tucks are often used to shape and fit a garment. They can be used to take in excess fabric, create a waistline, or provide a better fit around the bust or hips.
- Textural Interest: Tucks can be used to add texture and dimension to a garment. Depending on the fabric used, tucks can create a subtle or dramatic effect on the surface of the garment.
- Style Element: Tucks can be used as a style element to create a specific design aesthetic. For example, tucks can be used to create a retro-inspired look or a contemporary style.
- Hemming: Tucks can be used as an alternative to traditional hemming methods. By folding the fabric and stitching it in place, tucks can provide a neat and professional finish to the garment.
gathers refer to the process of sewing together a piece of fabric so that it becomes smaller in width and the excess fabric is distributed evenly in a controlled manner. This technique is often used to create fullness in a garment, add shape, or ease the fit.
There are several methods for creating gathers, but the most common one involves sewing a line of stitches along the edge of the fabric that needs to be gathered. The stitches are then pulled gently and evenly, causing the fabric to bunch up and form gathers.
The amount of fullness created by gathers depends on several factors, including the length and tension of the stitches, the density of the fabric, and the distance between the rows of stitches. Typically, the closer the rows of stitches are together, the tighter the gathers will be, while further apart stitches will result in looser gathers.
Gathers can be used in various parts of a garment, such as a waistline, sleeves, or neckline, and can be adjusted to create different effects. For example, gathers at the waistline can create a flattering and feminine silhouette, while gathers at the neckline can add volume and create a more dramatic look.
Pleats are a type of fold used in garment construction to create fullness in a garment. They are created by folding the fabric back on itself and then securing it in place with stitching or other methods. Pleats can be used in many different ways in garment construction, including adding fullness to skirts, creating shape in pants, and adding interest to blouses and dresses.
Pleats can be a great way to add interest and texture to a garment while also providing functional benefits, such as increased ease of movement. They can be used in many different ways to achieve different effects, and can be a versatile tool in garment construction.
There are several types of pleats that can be used in garment construction, including:
- Box pleats: This is a pleat where the fabric is folded in the same direction on both sides, creating a box-like shape. Box pleats are often used in skirts and can be either centred or off-centre.
- Knife pleats: This is a pleat where the fabric is folded in the same direction on one side, creating a sharp edge that resembles the blade of a knife. Knife pleats are often used in skirts and can be either single or multiple.
- Inverted pleats: This is a pleat where the fabric is folded in the opposite direction on both sides, creating a triangle shape. Inverted pleats are often used in skirts and dresses and can be either centred or off-centre.
- Accordion pleats: This is a pleat where the fabric is folded back and forth in opposite directions, creating a series of narrow, vertical folds. Accordion pleats are often used in skirts and dresses.
an opening refers to any section of a garment that allows for access to the inside of the garment, such as a neckline, a sleeve, or a waistband. Openings are essential for putting on and taking off the garment, as well as for facilitating movement and comfort.
Types of Openings
There are several types of openings used in garments construction, including:
- Neckline opening: This is the area around the neck that allows for the head to pass through. Neckline openings can be round, square, V-shaped, or any other shape that suits the design of the garment.
- Sleeve opening: This is the area around the arm that allows for the arm to pass through. Sleeve openings can be narrow or wide, depending on the design of the garment.
- Waistband opening: This is the area around the waist that allows for the garment to be put on and taken off. Waistband openings can be simple, such as a slit or a button closure, or more complex, such as a zipper or a hook-and-eye closure.
- Leg opening: This is the area around the leg that allows for the garment to be put on and taken off. Leg openings can be simple, such as a slit or a button closure, or more complex, such as a zipper or a snap closure.
- Back opening: This is an opening located at the back of the garment that allows for easy access to the inside of the garment. Back openings can be simple, such as a button closure or a zipper, or more complex, such as a placket or a keyhole.
Fastenings refer to the mechanisms or closures used to secure different parts of a garment in place, such as zippers, buttons, snaps, hooks and eyes, Velcro, or buckles.
These fastenings are essential in creating a well-fitting and comfortable garment that is easy to put on and take off. They can also add aesthetic appeal and style to the garment.
Types of Fastenings
Here are some common types of fastenings used in garment construction:
- Zippers: Zippers consist of two strips of teeth that interlock when pulled together. They are commonly used in pants, skirts, and dresses and come in different lengths and materials.
- Buttons: Buttons are usually made of plastic or metal and are sewn onto a garment. They can be used for closures on shirts, jackets, pants, and other garments.
- Snaps: Snaps are small metal or plastic discs that snap together to form a closure. They are commonly used in baby clothes, denim, and athletic wear.
- Hooks and eyes: Hooks and eyes are small metal fasteners that are sewn onto a garment. They are often used in the back of dresses, skirts, and pants.
- Velcro: Velcro is a hook-and-loop fastener that is commonly used in athletic wear and children’s clothing.
- Buckles: Buckles are used to adjust the fit of a garment and can be found on belts, straps, and shoes. They are often made of metal or plastic.