Back to: Jss3 Physical and Health Education (BST)
Topic: Group and Combined Events
WEEK: 1 & 2
In sports, athletes often showcase their versatile qualities and motor skills by combining physical exercises in one or more types of sports. This is particularly evident in combined track and field events in athletics, where athletes compete in a variety of athletic contests based on running, jumping, and throwing.
The combined event in athletics is a highly competitive and challenging event, in which athletes participate in several activities on both the track and the field. They earn points for their performance in each activity, which are then added up to determine the best all-round athlete in the overall event.
The combined event in athletics is not only a test of an athlete’s physical abilities but also their mental toughness and strategic thinking. To excel in this event, athletes need to have a well-rounded skill set that includes strength, power, endurance, agility, and speed. Above all, they must strive for excellence in all sporting activities.
One of the most famous combined events in athletics is the decathlon, which consists of ten events that take place over two days. These events include the 100-meter dash, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400-meter run, 110-meter hurdles, discus throw, pole vault, javelin throw, and 1500-meter run.
The decathlon is often considered the ultimate test of an athlete’s all-around abilities, and the winner is often regarded as the best athlete in the world. However, there are also other combined events in athletics, such as the heptathlon for women, which consists of seven events, and the indoor pentathlon, which consists of five events.
History of Combined Events in Athletics
The combined events in athletics have a rich and fascinating history, dating back to the ancient Olympic games. The pentathlon, which was first introduced in 708 BC, consisted of five events – long jump, javelin throw, discus throw, stadion footrace, and wrestling – and was immensely popular for many centuries. It was even considered a religious event by the ancient Greeks.
Fast forward to the 19th century, and the pentathlon was still being contested, albeit in a slightly different form. In 1865, the British held the first modern pentathlon, which included pistol shooting, fencing, swimming, horse riding, and cross-country running. The event was meant to test the skills required of a 19th-century cavalry officer.
In the late 1800s, the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) in the United States endorsed the pentathlon as an all-round event, and by the early 1900s, it had become a popular competition among track and field athletes. In fact, the decathlon – a ten-event competition consisting of the 100-meter dash, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400-meter dash, 110-meter hurdles, discus throw, pole vault, javelin throw, and 1500-meter run – made its debut at the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri.
Since then, the decathlon has become one of the most prestigious and challenging events in athletics, testing the athletes’ physical and mental endurance over two grueling days of competition. The current world record holder is Kevin Mayer of France, who scored 9,126 points at the 2018 Décastar meet in France.
There are several other combined events in athletics, including the heptathlon (which consists of seven events for women) and the indoor pentathlon (which consists of five events, including the 60-meter hurdles, high jump, shot put, long jump, and 800-meter run). These events continue to captivate audiences around the world with their thrilling displays of athleticism, strength, and endurance.
The combined events in athletics have come a long way since their origins in the ancient Olympic pentathlon. Today, they remain an important part of the sport, challenging athletes to push their limits and reach new heights of physical and mental performance.
Meaning Of Group and Combined Event
Group events, also known as combined events, are competitions that assess the all-around skills and abilities of the participants through a combination of various track and field events. These events require athletes to excel in multiple disciplines such as sprinting, jumping, throwing, and endurance running.
Combined events are typically divided into two categories: heptathlon for women and decathlon for men. The heptathlon consists of seven events, including 100m hurdles, high jump, shot put, 200m dash, long jump, javelin throw, and 800m run. The decathlon, on the other hand, includes ten events: 100m dash, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400m dash, 110m hurdles, discus throw, pole vault, javelin throw, and 1500m run.
Competitors in combined events accumulate points based on their performance in each discipline, and the athlete with the highest overall score at the end of all the events is declared the winner. The scoring system used in combined events is based on the athlete’s performance in each individual event, with more points awarded for better performances.
Combined events are considered to be one of the most challenging and demanding competitions in the world of athletics. They require competitors to be well-rounded athletes who possess a wide range of skills and abilities, including speed, agility, strength, and endurance. The gruelling nature of combined events requires athletes to maintain high levels of focus, mental toughness, and physical stamina throughout the competition.
Types of Combined Athletic Events
In athletics, combined track and field events are a unique and challenging test of an athlete’s overall skill and ability. These events consist of multiple individual events combined into one competition. There are three major types of combined events in athletics: pentathlon, decathlon, and heptathlon.
Pentathlon is a challenging and prestigious sports competition that has its roots in ancient Greece. The word “Pentathlon” derives from the Greek word “pente,” which means “five,” and “athlon,” which means “contest.” As the name suggests, Pentathlon consists of five different track and field events that are competed for in a single day. The competition demands a high level of physical endurance, speed, strength, and agility from the participants, making it one of the most demanding multi-discipline events in sports.
The five events that make up Pentathlon are discus, javelin, 1500 m race, 200 m race, and long jump. These events are chosen to test the different physical attributes of the athletes, including strength, speed, and endurance. Each event is scored according to a pre-determined points system, with the total number of points awarded determining the winner of the competition.
Pentathletes are considered some of the most well-rounded athletes in the world, as they need to excel in a wide range of events. The combination of events requires athletes to train in different disciplines, from throwing to running and jumping. To be successful in pentathlon, an athlete needs to have a combination of strength, speed, and technique, as well as the ability to maintain their focus and composure under pressure.
The facilities and equipment used in Pentathlon are those used in the track and field events being competed for. These include a discus, a javelin, a long jump pit, and a track for the running events. The 1500 m race is a middle-distance event that tests the athlete’s endurance, while the 200 m race is a sprint that tests their speed. The discus and javelin events are throwing events that test the athlete’s strength and technique, while the long jump tests their jumping ability.
Facilities and Equipment used in Pentathlon
These facilities and equipment are used in the five events that make up the modern Pentathlon: fencing, pistol shooting, swimming, horseback riding, and running. Each event requires specific equipment and facilities to ensure fair and safe competition.
Facilities and Equipment used in Pentathlon are as follows:
|Fencing Piste||A rectangular strip (14 meters long by 1.5 to 2 meters wide) where fencing bouts take place.|
|Foil||A light, flexible sword used in fencing.|
|Epee||A heavier sword with a larger guard used in fencing.|
|Sabre||A curved sword with a triangular cross-section used in fencing.|
|Pistol Shooting Range||A facility with targets for shooting events.|
|Air Pistol||A pistol that uses compressed air or gas to propel pellets towards the target.|
|Laser Pistol||A pistol that emits a laser beam towards a target, which records the accuracy and timing of the shot.|
|Swimming Pool||A facility for swimming events.|
|Swim Cap||A cap worn by swimmers to reduce drag and improve speed.|
|Goggles||Eyewear worn by swimmers to protect their eyes and improve visibility underwater.|
|Running Track||A circular track used for running events.|
|Running Shoes||Shoes designed for running, providing cushioning and support for the feet.|
|Athletic Clothing||Clothing designed for athletic events, providing comfort and ease of movement.|
Decathlon is a popular athletic event that consists of ten track and field events that are completed over two consecutive days. The word “Deca” originates from the Greek language, meaning ten. Decathlon is a grueling test of an athlete’s speed, strength, agility, and endurance, and the athlete who excels in all ten events is crowned as the best decathlete.
During the competition, decathletes compete in events that are specific to their gender. Male decathletes participate in long jump, high jump, shot put, 100m dash, and 400m race on the first day. On the second day, they compete in pole vault, javelin, discus, 110m hurdle, and 1500m running event.
On the other hand, female decathletes compete in 100m race, 400m race, pole vault, discus, and javelin on the first day. On the second day, they participate in long jump, high jump, shot put, 100m hurdle, and 1500m race.
Each event is worth a certain number of points, and the total points earned by the decathlete determines the winner. Decathletes are skilled and versatile athletes who have to excel in various disciplines, making them some of the most well-rounded athletes in the world.
The decathlon is one of the most prestigious events in athletics, and it has been a part of the Olympic Games since 1912. The competition requires endurance, strength, and skill, and it is considered to be one of the toughest athletic events in the world..
Facilities and Equipment Used in Decathlon
These facilities and equipment are essential to decathlon, which consists of ten track and field events, including sprints, jumps, throws, and middle-distance races. The events require different skills and techniques, and the equipment is designed to accommodate these unique challenges. Facilities such as the track and throwing circle provide a level and safe surface for athletes to compete on, while the equipment, such as the starting blocks, hurdles, and pole vault standards, are adjustable to accommodate different event specifications and athletes’ abilities. The safety and efficiency of the equipment and facilities used in decathlon are crucial to the success of the athletes and the competition.
|Starting Blocks||A set of adjustable blocks used to brace a sprinter’s feet before starting a race.|
|High Jump Pit||A cushioned pit filled with foam and covered with a vinyl or canvas sheet used to land in after jumping over a bar.|
|Hurdles||Lightweight barriers used for running races with hurdles. They can be adjusted to different heights for different events.|
|Javelin||A long, thin spear made of wood or carbon fiber used for throwing events.|
|Shot Put||A heavy spherical ball made of metal or other heavy material used for throwing events.|
|Discus||A circular, flat plate made of metal or other heavy material used for throwing events.|
|Pole Vault Pit||A cushioned pit filled with foam and covered with a vinyl or canvas sheet used to land in after pole vaulting.|
|Pole Vault Standards||A set of adjustable standards that support the crossbar during a pole vault event.|
|Crossbar||A fiberglass or metal bar that rests on the pole vault standards and is raised as the event progresses.|
|Hammer||A metal ball attached to a wire or chain that is thrown in a throwing event.|
|Track||A specially designed oval-shaped running surface made of synthetic material or a mix of rubber and asphalt.|
|Long Jump Pit||A cushioned pit filled with foam and covered with a vinyl or canvas sheet used to land in after jumping from a running start.|
|Throwing Circle||A circle marked on the ground used for throwing events.|
|Chalk||Used by athletes to mark their grip on the implement they are using for throwing events.|
|Water Jump Pit||A cushioned pit filled with water used for steeplechase events.|
The heptathlon is a multi-discipline event that is exclusively competed by female athletes. It comprises seven track and field activities, each of which tests different aspects of an athlete’s physical ability. The term “heptathlon” has its roots in the Greek language, with “hepta” meaning “seven” and “athlon” meaning “contest.”
The heptathlon is contested over a period of two days and demands a unique set of skills from athletes. The heptathlon requires a combination of mobility, skill, speed, and explosive strength. Athletes must be proficient in a range of disciplines that include sprints, hurdles, jumps, and throws.
The order of events in the heptathlon is as follows: day one starts with the 100m hurdles, followed by high jump, shot put, and the 200m race. On day two, athletes compete in the long jump, javelin throw, and finally, the 800m race. Each event is scored according to a points system, and the athlete with the highest total score at the end of the competition is declared the winner.
The heptathlon is a grueling event that tests an athlete’s endurance, agility, and mental toughness. Competitors must balance their energy expenditure across two days of competition, managing their physical and mental stamina to perform at their best throughout each event. The heptathlon is a showcase of female athletic excellence, highlighting the incredible physical abilities of women in the world of track and field.
facilities and equipment used in heptathlon
These facilities and equipment are essential for conducting a heptathlon competition and ensure that the events are conducted fairly and accurately.
Here is a tabular list of facilities and equipment used in heptathlon along with brief explanations:
|Track and Field||The heptathlon consists of seven events, all of which take place on a track or in a field. The track is typically 400 meters long and is made of synthetic material. The field is usually made of grass or a synthetic material and includes areas for long jump, high jump, shot put, and javelin throw.|
|Starting Blocks||Starting blocks are used by athletes in the sprinting events of the heptathlon (100m and 200m) to help them accelerate quickly out of the starting position.|
|Hurdles||Hurdles are used in the 100m hurdles event of the heptathlon. They are lightweight barriers that athletes must clear while running at high speeds.|
|High Jump Standards and Crossbar||The high jump standards and crossbar are used in the high jump event of the heptathlon. The standards are two vertical posts that hold up the crossbar, which is set at different heights based on the athlete’s ability.|
|Pole Vault Standards and Crossbar||The pole vault standards and crossbar are used in the pole vault event of the heptathlon. The standards are two vertical posts that hold up the crossbar, which is set at different heights based on the athlete’s ability.|
|Shot Put||The shot put is a heavy metal ball that athletes throw as far as they can in the shot put event of the heptathlon.|
|Javelin||The javelin is a long spear-like implement that athletes throw as far as they can in the javelin throw event of the heptathlon.|
|Timing System||A timing system is used to accurately record the times for each event in the heptathlon. This typically involves electronic timing devices and sensors that detect when athletes cross the finish line or complete an event.|
|Measuring Tape||A measuring tape is used to measure the distance of the throws and jumps in the field events of the heptathlon. This helps determine the final scores for each athlete.|
|Scoreboard||A scoreboard displays the current standings and scores for each athlete throughout the heptathlon. This allows athletes and spectators to track their progress and performance.|
The Scoring System in Combined Events
The scoring system in combined events is a crucial aspect of determining the overall winner. However, it has been a subject of debate in the sports community for its arbitrary nature. The current system employed by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) involves adding together the number of points that an athlete scores in each of the three combined events competition during the season.
To calculate the points, the IAAF uses a formula that varies depending on the discipline. For track events, the formula is Points = INT (A(B-P)C), where A, B, and C are parameters that vary by discipline, and P is the performance by the athletes measured in seconds. For field events, the formula is Points = INT (A(P-B)C), where P is the performance by the athletes measured in meters or centimeters.
It is important to note that the scoring system heavily favors athletes who are well-rounded in all disciplines. However, this may not always be a true reflection of the athlete’s ability, and sometimes, it can be difficult for the real test athlete to emerge in combined events.
Despite its shortcomings, the current scoring system is a standard way of determining the winner in combined events. However, there have been calls for a review of the system to ensure that it is fairer to all athletes, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses. In conclusion, while the current scoring system in combined events may not be perfect, it remains an integral part of the sport and continues to be used as a benchmark for determining the overall winner.
Here is a tabular representation of the scoring system in Combined Events for Men:
|Event||Units of Measurement||Scoring Formula|
|100m||Seconds||A = 25.4347 B = 18.00 C = 1.81|
|Long Jump||Meters||A = 0.14354 B = 220.00 C = 1.40|
|Shot Put||Meters||A = 51.39 B = 1.50 C = 1.05|
|High Jump||Meters||A = 0.8465 B = 75.00 C = 1.42|
|400m||Seconds||A = 1.53775 B = 82.00 C = 1.81|
|110m Hurdles||Seconds||A = 5.74352 B = 28.50 C = 1.92|
|Discus Throw||Meters||A = 12.91 B = 4.00 C = 1.10|
|Pole Vault||Meters||A = 0.2797 B = 100.00 C = 1.35|
|Javelin Throw||Meters||A = 10.14 B = 7.00 C = 1.08|
|1500m||Seconds||A = 0.03768 B = 480.00 C = 1.85|
And here is a tabular representation of the scoring system in Combined Events for Women:
|Event||Units of Measurement||Scoring Formula|
|100m||Seconds||A = 17.857 B = 21.00 C = 1.81|
|Long Jump||Meters||A = 0.188807 B = 210.00 C = 1.41|
|Shot Put||Meters||A = 56.0211 B = 1.50 C = 1.05|
|High Jump||Meters||A = 1.84523 B = 75.00 C = 1.348|
|400m||Seconds||A = 1.34285 B = 91.70 C = 1.81|
|100m Hurdles||Seconds||A = 9.23076 B = 26.70 C = 1.835|
|Discus Throw||Meters||A = 4.31747 B = 1.20|
Facilities and Equipment for Combined Events in Athletics
The athletic facility designed for combined events typically comprises both the track and the field. The track can either be indoor or outdoor, depending on the prevailing weather conditions and the nature of the event. Similarly, the field events may also be held in either an outdoor or, in exceptional cases, indoor facility.
To ensure the successful execution of combined events, athletes require specific equipment tailored to the discipline in which they compete. For instance, sprint activities necessitate specific gear to enhance performance. Such equipment includes starting blocks, spikes or track shoes, and appropriate clothing that is lightweight and aerodynamic to reduce drag.
Starting blocks are essential equipment for sprinters, enabling them to launch from a stationary position with explosive force. They are adjustable and can be customized according to an athlete’s height, leg length, and preferred starting position. Spike or track shoes provide the necessary traction on the track’s surface, preventing slippage during the sprint. Additionally, these shoes can reduce the amount of energy expended by an athlete by providing a firm grip.
Athletes also require appropriate clothing for optimal performance in sprint events. Clothing should be lightweight, breathable, and comfortable to avoid restricting movement. Tight-fitting clothing can also reduce drag and increase speed by reducing air resistance.
These are the essential facilities and equipment needed for combined events in athletics. Each event has its specific requirements, and all of them are necessary for a successful competition.
Here are the facilities and equipment needed for Combined Events in Athletics:
|Facility/Equipment||Description and Purpose|
|Track and Field Venue||A standard track and field venue includes a 400-meter oval track with eight lanes, a straightaway for sprints and hurdles, long jump and triple jump runways, high jump and pole vault areas, shot put and discus cages, and a javelin runway. The venue must meet international standards for competition.|
|Starting Blocks||Used by sprinters to help them get a quicker start off the line in the 100m, 200m, and 400m races. The blocks are adjustable to fit the athlete’s preferred starting position.|
|Hurdles||Used in the 100m and 400m hurdle events. The height and spacing of the hurdles are standardized for each event.|
|Javelin||A spear-like object that is thrown in the javelin event. The athlete must grip the javelin by its corded grip, run down the runway and throw the javelin as far as possible.|
|Shot Put||A heavy metal ball that is thrown in the shot put event. The athlete must hold the shot put near their neck, then spin and release the shot put as far as possible.|
|Discus||A flat circular object that is thrown in the discus event. The athlete must grip the discus by its rim, spin around and release the discus as far as possible.|
|Pole Vault||A long, flexible pole is used by the athlete to clear a horizontal bar placed above the ground. The athlete runs down the runway and plants the pole in a box, which helps propel them over the bar.|
|High Jump||The athlete runs down the runway and jumps over a horizontal bar. The athlete must clear the bar without knocking it off its supports.|
|Long Jump||The athlete sprints down the runway and jumps as far as possible from a take-off board. The athlete’s distance is measured from the take-off board to the closest mark made in the sand pit.|
|Triple Jump||The athlete sprints down the runway and takes three jumps, first landing on one foot, then hopping on the same foot, then jumping off the other foot. The athlete’s distance is measured from the take-off board to the closest mark made in the sand pit.|
|Timing Equipment||Used to measure the time it takes the athlete to complete each event.|
|Measuring Tape||Used to measure the distance of each throw or jump.|
|Scoreboard||Displays the athlete’s results and the event schedule.|
|Medical Personnel and Equipment||Trained medical personnel and equipment are on hand in case of injury or illness.|
rules and Regulations of Combined Events
Combined events, such as the decathlon and heptathlon, are multi-discipline athletic competitions that require athletes to participate in multiple events over the course of one or two days. To ensure fair competition and athlete safety, there are several rules and regulations that govern these events. Here are some of the most important rules and regulations of combined events:
- Event Order: Each event must be performed in the specified order, and any athlete who fails to follow the order will be disqualified. For example, in the decathlon, the order of events is as follows: 100m, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400m, 110m hurdles, discus throw, pole vault, javelin throw, and 1500m.
- Equipment: Athletes must use the equipment specified by the governing body of the competition. Any athlete who uses unauthorized equipment will be disqualified.
- Timing: The time taken for each event is measured to the nearest 1/100th of a second. The timing system used must be approved by the governing body.
- Distance Measurement: All distances must be measured using the metric system. The measuring equipment used must be approved by the governing body.
- Starting Procedure: The starting procedure for each event must be followed strictly. Any athlete who starts before the starting signal will be disqualified.
- Fouls: In events such as the long jump and shot put, athletes are allowed a certain number of fouls. If an athlete exceeds the allowed number of fouls, they will be disqualified from that event.
- False Starts: In events such as the 100m and 110m hurdles, any athlete who commits a false start will be disqualified.
- Injury Timeouts: Athletes who are injured during the competition may be allowed a certain amount of time to recover before continuing. The amount of time allowed is determined by the governing body.
- Protest Procedures: If an athlete believes that a rule has been broken during the competition, they may file a protest. The protest procedure is determined by the governing body.
- Drug Testing: All athletes may be subject to drug testing during and after the competition. Any athlete who tests positive for a banned substance will be disqualified and may face further disciplinary action.
Officials of Combined Events
Combined events, such as decathlon and heptathlon, involve multiple track and field disciplines in which athletes compete over two days. Here are some officials that are typically involved in these events and their roles:
- Referee: The referee is responsible for the overall conduct of the competition and ensuring that all rules are followed. The referee also has the final say in any disputes that may arise during the event.
- Starter: The starter is responsible for starting each event in the competition. They use a pistol or a starter gun to signal the start of each race or throw.
- Chief Judge: The chief judge is responsible for overseeing the field events, such as the long jump, high jump, shot put, and discus. They ensure that each athlete follows the rules and that measurements are accurate.
- Timekeeper: The timekeeper is responsible for measuring the times of each athlete in the running events, such as the 100m, 400m, and 1500m. They use electronic timing devices to record the times accurately.
- Track Judge: The track judge is responsible for monitoring the athletes during the running events to ensure that they follow the correct lanes and don’t impede each other. They also keep an eye out for false starts or other rule violations.
- Announcer: The announcer provides commentary and updates on the competition throughout the event. They announce the names of each athlete, their results, and any other relevant information.
- Medical Staff: Medical staff are present to provide assistance if an athlete gets injured or needs medical attention during the competition. They are responsible for ensuring that the athletes receive prompt medical care and are able to compete safely.
- Technical Delegate: The technical delegate is responsible for ensuring that the competition meets the requirements of the governing body, such as the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). They ensure that the competition is run according to the rules and regulations set forth by the governing body.
Safety Rules in Combined Events
As with any sport, combined events can pose a significant risk of injury to athletes. Therefore, it is essential to observe safety rules to minimize the risk of accidents and injuries. Here are some of the safety rules that athletes in combined events should observe:
- Warm-up: Before any competition or training, athletes must warm up their muscles to reduce the risk of injuries. A proper warm-up should include stretching and some light exercises that prepare the muscles for upcoming events.
- Proper Technique: Athletes should learn and practice the proper technique for each event to avoid unnecessary strain on the body.
- Protective Gear: Athletes should wear appropriate gear and equipment to protect themselves from injuries. For example, in high jump and pole vault, athletes should wear a helmet to protect their head in case of a fall.
- Hydration: Athletes must stay hydrated throughout the competition. They should drink plenty of water and sports drinks to replenish their fluids and electrolytes.
- Rest and Recovery: Athletes should rest and allow their bodies to recover between events. This helps to prevent overuse injuries and fatigue.
- Follow Rules: Athletes must follow the rules of the competition, including weight restrictions for throwing events, correct placement of equipment, and proper starting position in sprints.
- Medical Attention: In case of an injury, athletes should seek medical attention immediately. Ignoring injuries can lead to more severe problems in the long run.
- Check the Venue: Athletes should inspect the competition venue before starting the event. This helps to identify any potential hazards and avoid accidents.
- Proper Footwear: Athletes should wear appropriate footwear for each event. For example, they should wear spiked shoes for sprints and long jump, and flat shoes for shot put and discus.
- Listen to the Coach: Athletes should listen to their coaches’ instructions and advice. Coaches can help identify potential problems and provide guidance on how to prevent injuries.