Gymnastics is a highly demanding and physically challenging sport that involves a series of movements that require an impressive combination of physical strength, flexibility, grace, agility, balance, control, and coordination. It is a sport that can be performed on the floor or in various apparatus, such as uneven bars, balance beams, vaults, and rings.

One of the most impressive aspects of gymnastics is the incredible level of control and precision that is required to execute even the most basic movements. Gymnasts must have exceptional balance, coordination, and body awareness to be able to perform the intricate and complex movements required to succeed in this sport.

Competitive gymnastics events are organized and overseen by the Federation Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG), which was founded in 1881 in Liege, Belgium. The FIG is responsible for setting the rules and regulations for gymnastics competitions around the world, as well as organizing major international events such as the World Championships and the Olympic Games.

Gymnastics has a rich history that spans centuries, with evidence of gymnastics-like activities dating back to ancient Greece and Rome. Over time, the sport has evolved and developed into the complex and highly technical discipline that we see today.

Gymnastics is also a popular form of exercise and physical activity for people of all ages and abilities. Whether you’re a seasoned athlete looking to push your limits or a beginner just starting out, gymnastics offers a challenging and rewarding way to build strength, flexibility, and coordination while having fun and achieving your goals.

Types of Gymnastics

Gymnastics is a sport that involves various movements, such as acrobatics, flips, and twists, that require strength, flexibility, agility, and balance. There are several types of gymnastics, each with its unique features and characteristics. The following are the main types of gymnastics:

Artistic Gymnastics


Artistic gymnastics is the most popular form of gymnastics, and it involves both men and women. This type of gymnastics features events such as floor exercises, vaults, balance beams, and parallel bars. The athletes are judged on their execution, difficulty, and artistry. Artistic gymnastics requires a high level of strength, agility, and coordination.

Rhythmic Gymnastics


Rhythmic gymnastics is a type of gymnastics that is performed exclusively by women. It involves the use of various apparatus, including a ball, hoop, ribbon, clubs, and rope. The athletes perform routines that incorporate dance, jumps, and leaps, along with handling and manipulating the apparatus. The athletes are judged on their execution, artistry, and difficulty.

Trampoline Gymnastics


Trampoline gymnastics is a type of gymnastics that involves performing acrobatic manoeuvres on a trampoline. This type of gymnastics requires a high degree of strength, power, and control. The athletes are judged on their execution, difficulty, and form.

Acrobatic Gymnastics


Acrobatic gymnastics, also known as sports acrobatics, is a type of gymnastics that involves performing acrobatic manoeuvres with a partner or a group. This type of gymnastics requires a high degree of coordination, balance, and strength. The athletes are judged on their execution, difficulty, and artistry.

Power Tumbling


Power tumbling is a type of gymnastics that involves performing a series of acrobatic manoeuvres, such as flips and twists, on a spring runway. This type of gymnastics requires a high degree of power, control, and precision. The athletes are judged on their execution, difficulty, and form.



Parkour, also known as free running, is a type of gymnastics that involves moving through urban environments by performing acrobatic manoeuvres such as vaults, flips and jumps. This type of gymnastics requires a high degree of agility, strength, and precision.

Classification of Gymnastic Activities

Gymnastic activities can be classified into two:

1.   Floor activities

2.   Apparatus activities

Floor Activities

Floor exercise, also known as floor routine, is a gymnastics event that takes place on a padded mat. In this event, gymnasts perform a choreographed routine that consists of a series of acrobatic and dance movements. The routine is typically set to music, and the gymnasts are judged on their execution, artistry, and difficulty.

Floor activities are classified into two:

  •  Stunts
  • Tumbling activities
  • Balancing activities


Stunts refer to a range of physical exercises that are performed on the ground without any kind of equipment or apparatus. They require a great deal of strength, balance, flexibility, and coordination, and often involve complex movements that challenge the body in new ways. Some of the most common stunts include the headstand, elbow balance, shoulder balance, tightrope walk, Chinese get-up, crab walk, leapfrog, cock fight, and wheelbarrow, among others.

One of the defining characteristics of stunts is their emphasis on the mastery of one’s own body. Unlike many other forms of physical activity that rely on equipment or external tools, stunts require individuals to develop a deep understanding of their own physical abilities and limitations. This often involves a great deal of trial and error, as well as careful practice and repetition to develop the necessary skills and techniques.

In addition to the physical challenges posed by stunts, they also require a great deal of mental focus and discipline. Many stunts involve balancing or holding a pose for an extended period of time, which requires a great deal of concentration and mental fortitude. This can be particularly challenging for those who are just starting out with stunts, as they must learn to push past their physical and mental limitations in order to achieve their goals.

Despite the many challenges involved in stunts, they are also incredibly rewarding for those who engage in them. They can help individuals to develop a greater sense of body awareness and control, as well as improve their overall physical fitness and health. Additionally, stunts can be a great source of personal satisfaction and accomplishment, as individuals work to master new skills and push themselves to new heights of physical and mental achievement.

Stunts (without a partner)

These include:

1.   frog jump.

2.   Push up.

3.   Cycling in the air.

4.   Trunk curl.

5.   Sit up.

6.   Rabbit jump.

Stunts (with a partner)

These include:

1.   Cock fight.

2.   See –saw.

3.   Wheel barrow.

4.   Fireman lift.

5.   Lift the log.

6.   Chinese get- up.

7.   Leg wrestling.

Stunts (group)

1.   Pyramids.

Tumbling Activities

Tumbling activities in gymnastics refer to a series of acrobatic movements performed on the floor without the use of any apparatus. Tumbling skills require strength, flexibility, and control of the body, and are a fundamental part of artistic gymnastics, cheerleading, and other related sports.

Some common tumbling skills in gymnastics include:

  1. Cartwheel: A sideways movement where the gymnast places their hands on the floor and kicks their legs over their body.
  2. Roundoff: A running movement that ends with a back handspring. The gymnast runs towards the corner of the mat, does a cartwheel with their legs together, and lands on both feet before continuing into a back handspring.
  3. Back handspring: A backward somersault performed by pushing off with the hands and landing on both feet.
  4. Front handspring: A forward somersault performed by pushing off with the hands and landing on both feet.
  5. Aerial: A cartwheel without hands touching the ground, where the gymnast jumps and rotates in the air before landing on one foot.
  6. Back tuck: A backward somersault with a tucked body position, where the gymnast jumps and rotates in the air before landing on both feet.
  7. Front tuck: A forward somersault with a tucked body position, where the gymnast jumps and rotates in the air before landing on both feet.

Values Of Floor Activities.

Physical activity offers numerous benefits to individuals of all ages and fitness levels. Engaging in regular exercise not only promotes good health and well-being but also contributes to the development of various skills and abilities that can be applied to many areas of life. Here are ten benefits of physical activity:

  1. Courage: Physical activity can help develop courage by challenging individuals to push beyond their perceived limits and face fears. Whether it’s trying a new activity or pushing through a tough workout, physical activity can build mental and emotional strength.
  2. Physical fitness: Engaging in physical activity regularly helps improve physical fitness, including cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and flexibility. This can lead to better overall health and a reduced risk of chronic diseases.
  3. Safety skills: Many physical activities, such as martial arts or self-defense training, can teach individuals valuable safety skills that can be used in real-life situations.
  4. Livelihood: For many individuals, physical activity provides the means of livelihood. Professional athletes, personal trainers, and fitness instructors are just a few examples of careers that require a strong background in physical activity.
  5. Posture: Regular physical activity can improve body posture, which in turn can help reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries and chronic pain.
  6. Alertness: Physical activity can enhance alertness and focus by increasing blood flow and oxygen to the brain, which can improve cognitive function and reduce feelings of fatigue.
  7. Coordination and balance: Many physical activities, such as dance or gymnastics, require coordination and balance. Developing these skills can improve overall physical performance and reduce the risk of falls and injuries.
  8. Movement patterns: Engaging in a variety of physical activities can develop a wide range of movement patterns, which can enhance overall physical performance and reduce the risk of injury.
  9. The beauty of movement: Physical activity can also develop the beauty of movement, which is often seen in activities such as dance or yoga. This can enhance the overall aesthetic appeal and contribute to improved body image.
  10. Mental and creative ability: Physical activity can enhance mental and creative ability by promoting the release of endorphins, which can improve mood and reduce stress. This can lead to increased creativity and a more positive outlook on life.

Safety Rules in Non-Contact Games

Non-contact games are games that do not involve physical contact between players. Examples of non-contact games include badminton, table tennis, and chess. Even though these games do not involve physical contact, safety rules are still essential to ensure the safety of players. Here are some safety rules for non-contact games:

  1. Warm-up and Stretching: Players should warm up and stretch before starting a non-contact game to avoid muscle cramps or injuries.
  2. Wear Appropriate Clothing: Players should wear appropriate clothing and footwear to ensure comfort and prevent accidents. For example, players should wear non-slip shoes while playing table tennis to avoid slipping and falling.
  3. Stay Hydrated: Players should stay hydrated by drinking water before, during, and after the game to avoid dehydration and exhaustion.
  4. Respect Rules and Regulations: Players should respect the rules and regulations of the game to prevent accidents and injuries. For example, in badminton, players should not swing the racket outside the designated area to avoid hitting other players.
  5. Use Proper Equipment: Players should use proper equipment, such as helmets, pads, or goggles, where necessary to protect themselves from accidents and injuries.
  6. Keep the Playing Area Safe: Players should keep the playing area safe by removing any obstacles that may cause accidents, such as loose wires or cables.
  7. Use Caution: Players should use caution while playing and avoid overexerting themselves, which can lead to injuries or exhaustion.
  8. Report Injuries: Players should report any injuries immediately to the game officials or medical staff to receive proper treatment.

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