Back to: Jss2 Computer Science – ICT (BST)
Topic: Internet Environment
WEEK: 9 & 10
The internet is a distinctive communication channel that has a significant impact on a global scale. In just a few years, it has become an integral part of almost all human activities. One of the reasons for its widespread success is its unique features.
Characteristic Features of The Internet
Below are some of the characteristic features of the internet:
- Ease of use: The internet is designed to be user-friendly, with simple interfaces and intuitive navigation. Even those who are not technologically savvy can quickly learn to use it for a wide range of purposes, such as communication, research, or entertainment.
- Universal access: The internet has no geographical boundaries, and anyone with an internet connection can access it from anywhere in the world. This has helped to create a more connected and globalised world, where people from different cultures and backgrounds can interact and share information.
- Search capabilities: The internet’s search capabilities have revolutionised the way we access information. With search engines like Google, Bing and Yahoo, users can easily find relevant information on almost any topic within seconds. This has made research and learning more efficient and accessible.
- Instant communication: The internet allows for instant communication in a variety of forms, including email, instant messaging, video conferencing, and social media. This has made it easier to stay in touch with friends and family, conduct business, and collaborate with others from anywhere in the world.
- Information sharing: The internet enables the sharing of information on an unprecedented scale. This has led to the creation of vast repositories of knowledge and the democratization of information, allowing anyone to share their ideas and expertise with a global audience.
- E-commerce: The internet has revolutionized the way we buy and sell goods and services. E-commerce sites like Amazon and eBay have made it easier for businesses to reach a global market, and for consumers to shop for products from the comfort of their own homes.
- Social media: The rise of social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram has created new ways for people to connect and share information. Social media has also become an important tool for businesses and organizations to engage with their audiences and build their brands.
- Cloud computing: The internet has made it possible to store and access data in the cloud, eliminating the need for physical storage devices. This has made data more accessible, secure, and easier to manage.
- Online learning: The internet has transformed the way we learn, making it possible for anyone with an internet connection to access educational resources from anywhere in the world. Online learning platforms like Coursera, Udemy, and edX have made it possible to take courses from top universities and institutions without leaving home.
- Virtual reality: The internet has enabled the development of virtual reality technology, allowing users to experience immersive, simulated environments. This has applications in fields such as gaming, education, and even therapy.
Uses of The Internet
The internet is a highly valuable tool that provides a plethora of benefits to people across the world. Here are ten different ways in which the internet can be used for the following purposes:
- Communication: One of the biggest advantages of the internet is email, which allows for instantaneous communication with individuals located in different parts of the world. There are a variety of messenger and email services that offer this service for free, making it simple to establish and maintain global friendships.
- Information: The internet provides access to an enormous amount of information on any topic imaginable. The World Wide Web has made it easy for anyone to find the information and knowledge they need.
- Business: The internet has revolutionised the world of commerce by providing an easy platform for buyers and sellers to communicate and promote their products. Many people now prefer to use online classified sites to buy, sell or advertise their products, saving time and money. There are many classified sites on the web, such as craigslist, Adsglobe.com, and Kijiji.
- Social Networking: Social networking sites have become a significant part of the online community, used for both personal and business purposes. Entrepreneurs can connect with other individuals and begin building their personal and business brands.
- Online Shopping: Many people prefer to shop online as it is convenient and saves time. Online shopping allows people to purchase anything they need or want with ease. There are many shopping sites on the internet, such as jumia.com.ng, konga.com, amazon.com and dealsglobe.com, and people can even sell goods on auction sites.
- Entertainment: The internet offers a range of entertainment options, from watching films to playing games online. Individuals can find and share music, hobbies, news, and more. There are numerous games that may be downloaded from the internet for free.
- E-Commerce: E-commerce involves commercial activities that take place over the internet. It allows for the transfer of information across the globe, making it possible to buy and sell a vast array of products, from household necessities to entertainment.
- Services: Many services are now offered on the internet, such as online banking, job seeking, ticket booking, and guidance services. These services may not be available offline and can often be more cost-effective.
- Job Search: The internet has made it easy for both employers and job seekers to connect. There are numerous job sites that allow employers to advertise job openings and job seekers to search for suitable positions.
- Dating/Personals: The internet has made it easier for people to connect with potential partners, making it possible to find the right person and continue the relationship
- Education: The internet has revolutionized the way we learn and access educational resources. Online courses, tutorials, and educational websites provide a wealth of information and learning opportunities.
- News and Current Events: The internet provides real-time access to news and current events from around the world. Online news sources, blogs, and social media platforms allow people to stay up-to-date on the latest happenings in their communities and across the globe.
- Research: With the internet, people have access to vast amounts of information, making research easier and more convenient than ever before. From scholarly articles to online encyclopedias, the internet has become a powerful tool for research.
- Telecommuting: The internet has made it possible for people to work remotely, reducing the need for physical offices and allowing for more flexible work arrangements. This has led to increased productivity and work-life balance for many individuals.
- Digital Creativity: The internet has also given rise to new forms of creativity and expression, from online art communities to video sharing platforms. People can now create, share, and collaborate on digital projects like never before.
A network refers to a group of two or more computer systems connected together, and it can take the form of local-area networks (LANs) or wide-area networks (WANs). It can also be defined as an object that represents one or more systems managed by a firewall administrator. To denote a network, you can use an IP address or domain name.
Here are some examples of valid networks:
- Local Area Network (LAN)
- Wide Area Network (WAN)
- Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
- Storage Area Network (SAN)
- Campus Area Network (CAN)
- Personal Area Network (PAN)
- Home Area Network (HAN)
- Virtual Private Network (VPN)
- Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
- Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Network.
A network group is a collection of one or more networks that simplifies administration by allowing you to create rules for a larger group of systems, rather than individual rules for each system. A network group comprises of networks that share logical, physical, or business similarities, or a combination of these. For instance, a network group may include all networks located in the same office, all networks that are part of the same department, or all network groups in a specific office location. By grouping networks, it is easier to manage and apply policies across a larger set of systems.
A network group consists of networks that:
- Networks can be logically related due to your security policy, such as all the networks that exist within your firewall or all the systems that you use to manage the firewall. This means that you can create rules for these networks as a group, instead of having to make individual rules for each network or system. This simplifies administration and makes it easier to manage your security policies.
- Another way networks can be grouped is by physical location, such as all the networks that are situated in the Lagos office. This type of grouping can also make it easier to manage network security policies, as rules can be created to apply to all networks within a specific location.
- Networks can also be grouped based on their business purpose. For instance, all the networks in the Accounting department can be grouped together, as they likely have similar security requirements and data access needs. This can help ensure that all networks within a department are properly secured and managed.
- Network groups can be made up of other network groups. For example, you could have a network group for all the networks in the Maryland office, which is made up of several smaller network groups that represent individual departments or locations within the Maryland office. This hierarchical approach can help simplify network management and security policies, as rules can be created for different levels of network groups.
Creating Network Groups
To form a network group, follow these simple steps:
- Open the Network Groups window and click on the Add button.
- As a result, the Add Network Group window will appear on your screen, presenting a range of options for you to customise your new network group.
- To create a new network group, you need to provide some details about it, such as the name of the group and a brief description. It’s important to note that network group names are case-sensitive. Next, you need to select the networks or network groups that you want to include in the new group. You can do this by clicking on the network or group you want to add from the “Not Included” list and then clicking the “»” symbol to move it to the “Included” list. Once you have selected all the networks or groups you want to include, click the “OK” button to create the new network group
Steps to Add New Network Groups
When there is a need to define a distinct set of regulations for a different set of networks or hosts, it is essential to sketch out a new network group. To create a new network group, the firewall administrator should take the following steps:
- The firewall administrator initiates the process by creating a new network group named “Demonstration”.
- They proceed to add the networks that will be employed for the demonstration to the newly created Demonstration network group.
- Next, a Demonstration service group is created which authorizes only the services that visitors are permitted to use.
- A rule is then created to indicate that the Demonstration network group utilises the Demonstration service group.
- The administrator reorders the rules in such a way that the Demonstration rule is read first by the firewall, ahead of the trusted rule, to ensure its proper implementation.
Accessing Network Configuration
Open the Gauntlet Firewall Manager and select Firewall Rules from the available options.
Click on the Networks tab to proceed.
The Networks window will appear, providing access to the network configuration options. This window contains a list of all available networks and their associated properties, such as network name, IP address, and subnet mask. From here, the firewall administrator can modify, add or remove networks, and configure their associated properties. It is essential to have a thorough understanding of network configuration to ensure that the firewall operates efficiently and offers the necessary protection for the organisation’s network.
Deleting Network Groups
If a network group is no longer required, it can be deleted to streamline network administration. The following steps can be taken to delete a networking group:
- Open the Network Groups window within the Gauntlet Firewall Manager.
- Locate the network group that needs to be deleted and select it.
- Click on the Delete option to remove the network group.
- It is important to ensure that the network group is no longer needed before it is deleted to avoid any disruption to network operations. Once a networking group is deleted, any rules associated with that group will also be deleted. It is also advisable to review any remaining rules to ensure that they are still relevant and correctly configured
Week 10 Practical work
The students should be able to create and open an email address using Gmail or yahoo mail