The Internet is a global network of interconnected computer networks that allows for the exchange of information and communication among millions of people around the world. It has transformed the way we live, work, and communicate, and has become an integral part of our daily lives. The Internet was originally developed in the 1960s as a means of connecting government and academic institutions but has since evolved to encompass a vast array of services, including email, social media, online shopping, streaming media, and much more. Its widespread adoption has also led to the emergence of new industries, such as e-commerce and digital marketing, that have transformed the global economy. Today, the Internet is an essential tool for communication, education, entertainment, and commerce, and continues to shape our world in countless ways.

Computers have revolutionized the way we live and work, and one of the most important features of these machines is their ability to connect with one another. Local Area Networks (LANs) are a common way to connect computers within a confined space, such as an office or a school. LANs use cables or wireless devices to connect computers, printers, and other devices, allowing users to share files, printers, and other resources.

On the other hand, Wide Area Networks (WAN) connect computers that are located far apart from one another. WANs can connect computers in different cities, countries or even continents. The internet is a perfect example of a WAN. The internet is a vast network of computers worldwide that are connected to one another through various means, including satellites, fibre-optic cables, and wireless networks. This vast network enables users to share information, documents, videos, and other resources easily.

Meaning of Internet

The internet is sometimes referred to as a network of networks, and it is a broadcast medium that connects millions of computers worldwide. The beauty of the internet is that there is no limit to the amount of information that can be shared. Users can upload and download information, images, sounds, and videos from anywhere in the world. Additionally, there is no limit to the number of people that can have access to this information, making the internet a truly global resource.

The internet can be compared to a massive public spider web connection of computers. The web is a complex network of interconnected documents that are stored on web servers worldwide. Web browsers, such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Microsoft Edge, allow users to access these documents, which can contain text, images, and sounds. Web pages are accessed through the Universal Resource Locator (URL), a set of characters used to specify the location of a web document on the internet.

Computers have changed the way we live and work, and the internet is a perfect example of how these machines have revolutionized our world. With the internet, users can connect to a vast network of computers worldwide and share information and resources with millions of people. The internet has become a vital tool for communication, education, entertainment, and commerce, and it continues to evolve with new technologies and innovations.

Definition of Terms

In order to gain a comprehensive grasp of this module, it is important to be familiar with some key terminology. Let us begin by defining the first term: Internet.

The Internet is a vast network comprising millions of interconnected computers all over the world. In addition to computers, it also connects a wide range of other devices such as smartphones, tablets, GPS units, smartwatches, and even household appliances like fridges and thermostats. This global network is made up of a complex web of wires, cables, and wireless connections, including modems, routers, telephone lines, satellites, and other means of communication.

The Internet has become an integral part of modern life, connecting people from all corners of the world and providing access to an endless stream of information, entertainment, and communication. From social media to online shopping, from streaming music and videos to video conferencing and remote working, the Internet has transformed the way we live, work and interact with one another.

Despite its widespread use and global reach, the Internet is not a physical entity that can be touched or seen. Rather, it is an abstract concept, a virtual space where data is transmitted and shared between connected devices. This network of networks has no central authority, and its users have the freedom to create and access content without censorship or restriction.

If you want to master the ins and outs of this module, it’s crucial to familiarise yourself with these key terms:

World Wide Web (www)

The World Wide Web (www) is a vast network of interconnected documents and resources that can be accessed via the internet. It is a global network that connects computers and servers from all around the world, making it possible for individuals and businesses to access and share information and resources.

The web was invented by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist, in 1989. The first website was launched in 1991, and since then, the web has grown to become an indispensable part of our daily lives. The web is constantly evolving, and new technologies and standards are being developed to make it more accessible, faster, and easier to use.

The web is made up of billions of web pages that are hosted on servers around the world. These web pages can be accessed using a web browser, such as Google Chrome, Firefox, Safari, or Internet Explorer. The web pages are connected to each other through links, which enable users to navigate from one page to another.

The web has revolutionized the way we access information, communicate with each other, and conduct business. Today, we can use the web to shop online, pay bills, book flights, watch movies, listen to music, and connect with friends and family. The web has also transformed the way businesses operate, allowing them to reach new customers, expand their markets, and provide better customer service.

The web is an open platform, which means that anyone can create and publish content on it. This has led to an explosion of user-generated content, from blogs and social media posts to videos and podcasts. The web has also given rise to new forms of collaboration and innovation, such as open-source software and crowdsourcing.


Emails have revolutionized communication by providing a fast, reliable, and convenient way to communicate with others. An email, also known as electronic mail, is a digital message sent over the internet from one computer to another. It can be sent and received almost instantaneously, making it a very efficient means of communication.

The format of an email typically includes a header, which contains the sender’s and recipient’s email addresses, the subject line, and the date and time of the message. The body of the email contains the message that the sender wishes to convey. Emails can also include attachments such as documents, images, and videos.

Emails are widely used for both personal and professional communication. In a personal context, emails can be used to stay in touch with friends and family, share updates, and send invitations. In a professional context, emails are used to communicate with colleagues, clients, and customers. They are also used to send business proposals, job applications, and other important documents.

The benefits of using emails for communication are numerous. They are faster and more convenient than traditional postal mail. They are also cost-effective, as they eliminate the need for postage and paper. Additionally, emails can be sent to multiple recipients at the same time, making them ideal for mass communication.


Intranet refers to a private internal network that is accessible only to the employees or authorized personnel of an organization. It provides a secure digital space for sharing information, collaboration, and communication within a company or organization.

An intranet is an essential tool for any modern business that wants to streamline its operations, enhance productivity, and improve communication among employees


E-commerce, or electronic commerce, refers to the buying and selling of goods and services over the internet. This has revolutionized the way people shop, making it easier and more convenient than ever before. E-commerce has also created new business opportunities, allowing entrepreneurs to start online businesses with minimal investment and overhead costs.

The benefits of e-commerce are numerous. Firstly, it provides a much larger customer base for businesses, as anyone with an internet connection can shop from anywhere in the world. It also allows businesses to offer a wider range of products and services, as they are not limited by physical store space. In addition, e-commerce provides a seamless and secure payment process, with the use of digital payment methods such as credit cards, PayPal, and other online payment platforms.

E-commerce has also revolutionized the way people shop. Customers can now shop from the comfort of their homes, at any time of the day or night. This has made shopping more convenient and efficient, allowing customers to easily compare prices, read reviews, and make informed purchase decisions. In addition, e-commerce has made it possible to purchase products that may not be available in physical stores, such as niche products or products from other countries.


An e-library stores research papers, books, and documents in electronic format, which can be accessed by researchers from their computers.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

HTML is the basic language used to create web pages. It uses tags to mark up and differentiate various elements on a web page.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

HTTP is the networking standard used for transferring data between servers and clients on the World Wide Web.

Web page

A web page is a document or information resource found on the web. It may contain text, images, and sounds, and can be accessed via a web browser.


A browser is a software application that allows users to access and view documents called web pages.

Web server

A web server is a software application that runs on a computer and responds to HTTP requests from clients (usually web browsers). Its primary purpose is to host and serve web content, such as HTML documents, images, videos, and other multimedia files.

When a user types a web address (URL) into their browser, the browser sends a request to the webserver to retrieve the corresponding web page. The web server then processes the request and returns the requested content to the browser.

Web servers are essential for creating and hosting websites on the internet. They provide the infrastructure needed to make web pages accessible to users all around the world. There are several types of web servers, including Apache, Nginx, Microsoft IIS, and Google Web Server.

The most popular web server is Apache, which is open-source software and is widely used on various operating systems like Linux, Unix, Windows, and macOS. Apache is known for its flexibility, reliability, and security features. It can handle multiple requests at the same time and can be configured to handle different types of web content.


A website is a collection of related web pages accessed on the internet. It may contain text, videos, music, audio, images, and other content.


Browsing is the act of exploring the internet or any other networked system in order to find information or resources. It involves using a web browser to navigate the internet and access websites, search engines, and other online services.

Browsing has become an essential part of our daily lives, as it allows us to access an incredible amount of information with just a few clicks. With the help of web browsers, we can access everything from news and entertainment to shopping and banking.

There are many popular web browsers available, including Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, and Safari. Each of these browsers has its own unique features and functions, but they all work in a similar way. They allow users to enter web addresses or search terms into a search bar and navigate through websites and online services.

Browsing also involves using search engines to find specific information or resources. Google is the most popular search engine, but there are many others, such as Bing, Yahoo, and DuckDuckGo. Search engines use complex algorithms to provide users with the most relevant search results based on their search terms.


A newsgroup is an online discussion group that allows users to discuss news and various topics from anywhere in the world, as long as they’re connected to the internet.


A host is a company that allows websites to be located on their web servers.


To download is to receive documents (text, images, sound, etc.) from a web server to your own computer.


A security system that controls access to a computer network, preventing unauthorised access to it and protecting against attacks.

Search engine

Search engine refers to the software tool that enables users to find information and web pages on the internet. It is a complex algorithm that sorts through millions of web pages to find the most relevant results for a given query.

Search engines are an integral part of our daily lives, with over 3.5 billion searches being performed every day on Google alone. The technology behind search engines has evolved significantly over the years, and today they can provide highly accurate and relevant results to users.

The process of search engine optimization (SEO) is focused on making web pages more visible and relevant to search engines, with the ultimate goal of driving organic traffic to a website. SEO techniques include keyword research, on-page optimization, and link building, among others.

Search engines work by crawling the web and indexing pages based on their content and relevance. They use complex algorithms to determine the relevance of a page to a user’s search query, taking into account factors such as keyword density, quality of content, and user engagement.

While Google is the most popular search engine, other popular search engines include Bing, Yahoo, and DuckDuckGo. These search engines may have different algorithms and ranking factors, making it important for websites to optimize for each search engine individually.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

The address of a webpage on the internet, consists of the protocol, domain name, and file path.

Domain name

The unique name identifies a website on the internet, such as

IP address (Internet Protocol address)

A unique identifier is assigned to each device connected to the internet.


A technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed internet and network connections.


A website or section of a website consisting of regularly updated posts or articles, typically in a conversational style.


An audio program made available on the internet for downloading or streaming, usually in a series of episodes.

Social media

Websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or participate in social networking.

Cloud computing

The use of remote servers to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or personal computer.

Virtual reality (VR)

A computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional environment that can be interacted with in a seemingly real way.

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