Back to: Jss1 Computer Science – ICT (BST)
Topic: IT and Society
IT and Society
The emergence and widespread adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs), including the World Wide Web, telephones, satellites, and email, have had a profound impact on the way we interact with each other, conduct business, and plan for economic and human development. ICT provides governments with the necessary infrastructure to offer efficient and effective services to their citizens, improving the overall quality of life. The development of ICT has brought about significant changes to how we live our lives, greatly influencing society as a whole.
One area where ICT has particularly added value is in the field of education, especially in the way in which learning is organised and managed. With the help of ICT, learners are now able to gain rapid access to ideas and experiences from a wide range of people, cultures and communities. This has enabled learners to expand their knowledge base and develop new skills, regardless of their geographical location.
Today, all institutions and organisations have been impacted by ICT in their daily activities. ICT now has far-reaching effects on organisations and institutions such as education, health, commerce, industry and transportation. For example, ICT has transformed how education is delivered, making learning more accessible, interactive and engaging. In the healthcare sector, ICT has enabled medical professionals to collaborate more effectively, share information and provide better patient care. In the commercial sector, ICT has revolutionised how businesses operate, enabling them to reach a wider customer base and provide services more efficiently. In the industrial sector, ICT has led to the automation of many processes, increasing productivity and reducing costs. Finally, in the transportation sector, ICT has enabled better traffic management, improved safety and increased efficiency in logistics and supply chain management
Uses Of IT in Some Fields
Police and Military
- To communicate with one another in the event of a crime, it is essential that law enforcement officials have access to effective communication tools.
- Keeping a record of areas where crimes are taking place is crucial in order to develop effective strategies to combat crime and maintain public safety. The use of technology can assist in the collection, management and analysis of crime data.
- Tracking criminals is an important aspect of law enforcement. Technology such as GPS tracking and facial recognition can be used to locate and apprehend criminals, making communities safer.
- Research and development of the military often requires the use of sophisticated technology. This can include the development of new weapons systems, communications equipment, and surveillance tools.
- The use of technology is vital in order to keep track of activities within various sectors. For example, in the transportation industry, technology can be used to monitor traffic and improve traffic flow. In the healthcare sector, technology can be used to track patient data and ensure that the appropriate treatments are being administered. In the financial sector, technology can be used to track financial transactions and prevent fraud
- To keep track of activities in stock markets.
- Monitoring the movements and trends in the stock markets is crucial for investors and financial institutions. It allows them to make informed decisions and predict future market performance.
- Banks utilise e-banking to enable customers to make payments for goods online, reducing the need for cash transactions. This, in turn, minimises the risk of theft and armed robbery. In the manufacturing sector, companies monitor goods during production and after production to ensure quality control and avoid defects.
- Insurance companies can benefit from ICT by having easy access to customer information. With this, they can quickly and accurately process claims, offer personalised services, and keep track of customer interactions.
- Barcode readers, scanners, and Point of Sale (POS) systems are widely used in businesses to facilitate cashless transactions. Customers can easily make payments without carrying cash, and business owners can keep track of the number of transactions and revenue generated.
- In supermarkets and bookstores, ICT is used to maintain inventory records and help cashiers and storekeepers know the prices of goods and the remaining stock. This helps to avoid errors and delays in transactions and enhances the overall shopping experience for customers.
- Online shopping has become increasingly popular in recent years, with many retailers now offering convenient delivery options and user-friendly interfaces. E-commerce platforms utilise various ICT tools such as customer databases, analytics, and secure payment gateways to provide a seamless shopping experience.
- The use of social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn has transformed the way businesses interact with their customers. Companies can now engage with their customers in real-time, respond to queries and complaints promptly, and build brand loyalty through social media campaigns.
- Electronic medical records (EMRs) are used in hospitals and clinics to store and manage patient information, including medical history, test results, and treatment plans. With EMRs, healthcare providers can access patient data quickly and securely, reducing the risk of errors and ensuring better patient outcomes.
- Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used in the education sector to enhance teaching and learning. Online learning platforms, educational apps, and digital textbooks provide students with greater flexibility, access to a wider range of resources, and the ability to learn at their own pace.
- The use of data analytics tools such as machine learning, data mining, and predictive modelling has revolutionised the way businesses make decisions. By analysing large amounts of data, companies can identify patterns, trends, and correlations, which can inform strategic planning, improve operational efficiency, and create new business opportunities
- Creating economic models is a valuable technique that can be used for a variety of purposes, including forecasting future economic trends and developments.
- Economic models are a useful way to predict how different economic factors and variables may interact in the future. By constructing models that represent economic systems, analysts can identify potential outcomes and trends, enabling individuals and organizations to make informed decisions based on likely scenarios.
- In addition to forecasting, economic models can also be used to assess the financial viability of proposed projects. By using models to project potential costs and revenues, planners can evaluate the feasibility of different projects and make informed decisions about which ones to pursue.
- Drawing economic models is an essential skill for those who need to plan projects that require financial resources.
- Effective planning is critical for ensuring the success of projects that involve financial investments. Economic models can be used to project potential costs, revenues, and other relevant economic factors to evaluate the feasibility of different projects. By assessing the likely outcomes of different scenarios, planners can make informed decisions about which projects are most likely to succeed and which ones should be avoided
- Economic models are an important tool for governments and policymakers who need to make informed decisions about economic policies and regulations.
- Economic models can help policymakers assess the impact of different policy decisions on the economy and evaluate potential outcomes. By using models to simulate the effects of different scenarios, policymakers can identify the most effective policy options and make informed decisions based on empirical evidence.
- Economic models can also be used to understand the behaviour of consumers and businesses, providing valuable insights into market trends and preferences.
- By analysing economic models, researchers can gain a better understanding of how consumers and businesses behave in the marketplace. This can be particularly useful for businesses and marketers who need to develop effective marketing strategies and product offerings that resonate with their target audience.
- Economic models can help individuals make informed decisions about personal finance and investment.
- By creating economic models that simulate different investment scenarios, individuals can assess the potential risks and rewards of different investment opportunities. This can help individuals make informed decisions about how to invest their money and achieve their financial goals. Additionally, economic models can be used to evaluate the potential impact of economic trends, such as inflation or interest rates, on personal finances.
- The census is conducted to collect and process data from surveys, issue licenses for operating vehicles, and issuing driving licenses, amongst other things.
- One of the essential functions of the government is to maintain updated records of critical information, and this is facilitated through various systems that allow for storage and updates.
- Accurate records of proceedings are necessary for various reasons, including legal and historical purposes. Therefore, recording proceedings is an important function of the government.
- The court system deals with a vast amount of information, and it is crucial to have a reliable system in place to store and retrieve data efficiently. Therefore, the government provides such a system for storing and retrieving information in the court.
- Law enforcement: The government maintains records of criminal activities and the individuals involved in them to ensure public safety. These records include information about criminal history, convictions, and sentencing.
- Taxation: The government collects taxes from individuals and businesses to finance public services and programs. To manage taxation effectively, the government maintains records of taxpayers, their income, and tax payments.
- Public health: The government monitors public health by keeping records of communicable diseases, vaccination rates, and public health initiatives. This data is used to track disease outbreaks and to develop public health policies and programs.
- Social welfare: The government provides various forms of social welfare support to individuals and families in need. To administer these programs, the government maintains records of individuals’ eligibility for benefits and the support they receive. This information is used to ensure that those who need assistance receive the appropriate support.
- The system is used to record and manage data on staff employment, including their personal details, job roles, and working hours. This information is essential for managing the workforce and ensuring that employees receive the correct pay and benefits.
- Tax computation is an essential function of the government, which involves calculating the amount of tax owed by individuals and businesses based on their income, expenses, and other factors. The government uses advanced software and algorithms to make these calculations accurately and efficiently.
- The government assesses taxpayers based on the information they provide, which includes their income, assets, and expenses. This information is used to determine the amount of tax owed by each taxpayer, and the government uses various methods to ensure that taxpayers are paying the correct amount. These methods may include audits, investigations, and penalties for non-compliance.
- Pension management: The government is responsible for managing pensions for retired individuals, which involves collecting and maintaining records of pension contributions, payments, and benefits. This data is used to ensure that pensioners receive the correct amount of benefits and that the pension system remains financially stable.
- Immigration control: The government keeps records of individuals entering and leaving the country, including their personal information, travel documents, and reasons for travel. This information is used to manage immigration and border control and to ensure national security.
- Land registry: The government maintains a registry of all land and property ownership in the country. This information is used to manage property transactions, resolve land disputes, and collect property taxes. The registry also provides information to individuals and businesses about land ownership and boundaries.
- The government uses various methods to assess the performance of students, including exams, tests, and assignments. This data is used to determine the effectiveness of the education system and to identify areas for improvement.
- Programmed instruction, such as Computer-aided Instruction (C.A.I.), is a method of teaching that uses computers to deliver instructional material and assess students’ understanding. This approach relies on research findings and scientific analysis to create effective learning materials.
- Computers are used to process and store students’ records and results, including their personal information, attendance records, and grades. This data is used to monitor student progress and to evaluate the effectiveness of the education system.
- ICT is used extensively in education, providing students with access to a wealth of information from the Internet. Students can use ICT to type assignments and projects, access learning materials on a screen-like board, and communicate with one another and their teachers.
- Students and teachers can connect to the Internet using ICT to access more information about school work, carry out homework, and type assignments. This access to online resources and tools enhances the learning experience and promotes independent learning.
- In schools, ICT is used to keep records of teachers and students, including their personal information, qualifications, and employment records. This information is used to manage the education system and ensure that all staff and students are appropriately qualified and registered
- Distance learning: ICT has revolutionized the way education is delivered, allowing students to learn remotely through virtual classrooms and online courses. This has enabled students to access education from anywhere in the world, breaking down geographical barriers and increasing access to education.
- Digital resources: ICT has made it possible to access a vast range of digital resources such as e-books, online libraries, and databases. These resources provide students and teachers with up-to-date information and enhance the quality of education.
- Electronic assessment: ICT has enabled the development of electronic assessment tools such as online quizzes and exams. This has made the assessment process more efficient and streamlined, reducing the time and effort required to grade assignments and exams.
- Administration and management: ICT is used for the administration and management of educational institutions, including the management of finances, HR records, and student enrollment. This helps to streamline administrative processes, reduce paperwork, and increase efficiency.
- Doctors and healthcare professionals use various tools and technologies to conduct medical tests, diagnose patients’ ailments, and prescribe appropriate treatments. This includes advanced medical equipment and software, which help doctors to accurately diagnose and treat medical conditions.
- Information and communication technology is used to store and manage medical records and patients’ records. This data is used to track patients’ medical histories, monitor treatment progress, and ensure that patients receive appropriate care. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are used to capture and store all relevant patient information such as medical history, diagnoses, medications, and test results.
- ICT helps doctors and healthcare professionals to have access to patients’ medical histories and appointments. This enables them to provide more personalized care and treatment, and to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate medical attention. Appointment scheduling software and reminders help patients to keep track of their appointments and make it easier to manage their healthcare needs.
- ICT is also used in medical research, providing doctors and researchers with access to the latest medical information and resources. This enables them to stay up-to-date with the latest medical research and to develop new treatments and approaches to patient care. Electronic databases and medical journals provide doctors and researchers with access to the latest research and information on medical conditions and treatments. Additionally, simulation software is used to model and test new medical treatments and procedures
- Telemedicine: ICT is used to provide healthcare services remotely through telemedicine. This involves using video conferencing and other digital communication technologies to consult with patients, monitor their condition, and prescribe treatments. Telemedicine has become increasingly important during the COVID-19 pandemic, enabling doctors to provide care to patients while minimizing the risk of transmission.
- Medical education and training: ICT is used in medical education and training to provide students and healthcare professionals with access to learning resources and training programs. This includes online courses, digital textbooks, and simulation software, which enable students to gain practical experience in a safe and controlled environment.
- Medical imaging: ICT is used to produce and interpret medical images, such as X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans. This involves the use of sophisticated imaging software and hardware, which enable doctors and healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose and treat medical conditions.
- Medical billing and coding: ICT is used to manage medical billing and coding, ensuring that healthcare providers are reimbursed for their services. This involves the use of electronic billing systems, which enable healthcare providers to submit claims to insurance companies and other payers. Medical coding software is used to ensure that billing codes are accurate and up-to-date.
Advantages of ICT
- Large volumes of data can be stored and processed quickly and efficiently using ICT, allowing for more efficient and streamlined data management.
- Working from home has become increasingly common with the use of ICT, enabling people to communicate and collaborate with others across the world through e-mail, video conferencing, and instant messaging. This has made remote work and global communication more accessible and convenient.
- The use of ICT can lead to cost and time savings by automating tasks and reducing the need for physical resources such as paper and storage space. This can result in increased productivity and efficiency.
- Access to information is no longer restricted to certain times or locations with the use of ICT. Information is now available 24/7 through the internet, home computers, office servers, and other digital devices. This has led to greater accessibility and convenience in obtaining and sharing information.
- ICT can be used to aid specialists, such as surgeons, in their operations and in training new doctors. This includes the use of advanced imaging technologies and simulation software, which enable doctors and medical professionals to practice and refine their skills in a safe and controlled environment.
- Digital data can be easily stored and processed using ICT, which includes a variety of hardware and software solutions. This allows for data to be organized, analyzed, and shared in a more efficient and effective manner.
- ICT can be used to control automated processes in dangerous or hazardous places, reducing the risk to employees. For example, robots can be used in manufacturing facilities to handle dangerous materials or perform tasks in environments that are not safe for human workers.
- With the use of ICT, different types of media can work together seamlessly. For example, a mobile phone can be connected to a computer to enable the transfer of data or to share media files such as photos and videos. This allows for greater flexibility and convenience in accessing and sharing digital media
- Information Technology has the potential to revolutionize the teaching and learning process, making it more student-centered and facilitating the development of 21st-century skills. When used in conjunction with effective teaching strategies, it has been found to have a positive impact on student achievement, with the teacher taking on the role of facilitator.
- The use of Information Technology enables students to study and access tutorials on their personal computers, thereby improving their self-study skills and making them more effective learners. It also has a significant effect on student motivation and confidence. Students who use computers frequently at home and school are more confident than those who lack home access.
- Information Technology can promote learner autonomy, making students independent learners. It has also increased access to education, especially through distance learning and online tutorials. Information Technology has made processes that were previously inaccessible to most people, such as photography, possible through digital cameras, photo-editing software, and high-quality printers.
- One of the most significant benefits of Information Technology is that it has enabled people with disabilities to overcome their challenges. Screen reading software, for instance, makes it possible for visually impaired people to work with regular text instead of Braille, and audio software such as JAWS can assist special needs students with letter and word recognition.
- In organizations, Information Technology has led to cost savings by replacing traditional communication methods like the telephone and post with VoIP and email, respectively. It has also made it possible to conduct virtual meetings through video conferencing instead of traveling, and enabled businesses to use e-commerce software instead of printed sales catalogues. Moreover, managers can benefit from reliable and up-to-date information, improving their decision-making process.
- Information Technology can solve or reduce some security problems. For example, encryption methods keep data safe from unauthorized access, while physical security systems such as fingerprints, iris, or facial recognition improve safety in some settings.
- Another advantage of Information Technology is the ability to perform simulations, making previously impossible experiments possible. Finally, Information Technology offers individual learning programs within a topic, enabling students to work at their own pace and style.
- The use of Information Technology has transformed academic libraries and information services, providing unprecedented access to information and resources
Disadvantages of ICT
- The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has brought about both positive and negative effects on individuals and organizations. While it has revolutionized the way we live and work, it has also led to some undesirable consequences. In this response, we will focus on the negative effects of ICT.
- Job Loss: One of the most significant negative impacts of ICT is the loss of jobs. Automation, robots replacing people on the assembly line, and multiple workers being replaced by a smaller number who can do the same amount of work using computers, have both economic and social consequences. The loss of jobs can lead to unemployment and financial hardship for individuals and families.
- Reduced Personal Interaction: The increased use of social media has led to a reduction in in-person social interaction. Cyberbullying and cyber abuse by anonymous users online can lead to problems with self-esteem, privacy, and mental health. Social media addiction can lead to feelings of isolation and loneliness.
- Reduced Physical Activity: The sedentary nature of using computers and ICT can lead to a more inactive and desk-bound lifestyle. Repetitive strain injury and eye strain are common problems that people experience when spending long hours staring at computer screens.
- Cost: Many ICT hardware and software are expensive to purchase and maintain. The cost of keeping up with ever-changing technology can also be a financial burden for individuals and organizations.
- Changing Technology: An ICT system usually requires specialist staff to run it. Keeping up with the ever-changing technology can be a challenge for organizations.
- Losing Competitive Advantage: For some organizations, being exposed to competition can be a problem. ICT can level the playing field and give smaller companies access to the same technology as larger companies.
- Security Threat: The use of ICT also brings about security concerns for individuals and organizations. Data must be kept secure, and internet connections must be protected from attack. New viruses and other malware are released nearly every day, posing a constant threat.
- Digital Divide: The high cost of procuring ICT gadgets can lead to poorer students and organizations being marginalized or disadvantaged. This results in a digital divide that affects the ability of these individuals and organizations to compete effectively in today’s world.
- Addiction: The use of technology can be addictive, and students and teachers can become hooked on the technology aspect rather than the subject content.
- Moral and Ethical Problems: The Internet has made many materials available, including those with pornographic content, which can cause moral and ethical problems.
- Fraud: The rise of e-commerce, mobile payments, and computing power has led to an increase in sophisticated fraud.
- Reducing Levels of Education and Understanding: The large amounts of incorrect and misleading information available on the internet can lead to a reduction in education and understanding. For example, the use of SMS language has negatively influenced the way children write essays nowadays, and many children cannot spell English words correctly.
ICT in Our Daily Activities
A digital library is a virtual library where all operations are performed electronically, utilizing computers that are connected to a network. This technology enables library operations to be performed more efficiently and effectively than traditional methods.
E-banking (Electronic Banking)
E-banking involves conducting banking transactions using electronic equipment. The difference between the new generation banks and traditional banks is significant. Digitized signatures and passports are stored in computers to facilitate easy verification and automated operations. E-banking includes facilities such as electronic cards (e-cards), electronic fund transfers (EFT), and automated teller machines (ATM). E-cards are electronic wallets that store large sums of money, and they are designed to encourage the use of credit cards instead of cash. Funds can be transferred globally in a matter of seconds using EFT, with services such as Money Gram, Sport Cash, and Western Union Money Transfer. ATM provides convenient, fast, and round-the-clock services, including inquiries on balances, interest and exchange rates, withdrawals, deposits, and account transfers.
E-Learning (Electronic Learning)
E-learning is a commonly used term that does not have a universal definition. It refers to the electronic mode of knowledge sharing and transmission, which may not involve face-to-face or physical contact between the teacher and student. E-learning includes computer-aided teaching (CAT), computer-aided learning (CAL), and computer-aided instruction (CAI).
Video conferencing allows people from different locations to see and talk to each other without being physically present. This technology can be achieved using computer systems, telephones, and video cameras. Video conferencing is also used by schools to share ideas and information among students and educators.
The internet provides an easy means of sharing and downloading electronic files and documents, but this often results in copyright breaches. Copyright infringement can have significant legal and financial consequences.
To Distort Reality
With the rise of deepfake technology, it is becoming easier to manipulate digital media in ways that can deceive people and distort reality. This can have serious implications for public trust and security, and it is important to remain vigilant and discerning when consuming digital media.
One of the most significant challenges of ICT is ensuring that data and information are kept secure. With the rise of cybercrime and hacking, there is an increased risk of data breaches and information theft. Organizations must invest in robust cybersecurity measures to protect their systems and data from cyber threats.
Student should be able to carry out practical work on IT