Back to: Jss2 Physical and Health Education (BST)
WEEK: 9 & 10
Javelin is a thrilling track and field event that involves a combination of speed, power, technique, and precision. It is a discipline that requires athletes to throw an implement, also known as a javelin, as far as possible within a designated area.
In this event, each competitor hurls a spear-like object made of metal with a pointed steel tip. The minimum length of the javelin implement for men is approximately 2.6 meters (8 feet 6.2 inches), while for women, it is around 2.2 meters (7 feet 2.5 inches). This difference in length reflects the anatomical differences between men and women, with men generally having a greater reach and height compared to women.
To ensure fairness and safety, the weight of the javelin implementation also varies between men and women. Men typically use a heavier javelin that weighs around 800 grams, while women use a lighter one that weighs approximately 600 grams. Additionally, the grip of the javelin is about 150 millimetres (5.9 inches) wide, allowing athletes to hold and throw the javelin securely.
Athletes use various techniques to launch the javelin as far as possible, with the most common method being the overhand throw. To execute this technique, the athlete holds the javelin above their shoulder with their throwing arm, takes a few steps, and then releases the javelin using a forward motion while twisting their body for added power.
Javelin throwing is a technical and challenging event that requires a combination of physical strength, flexibility, and coordination. The competition is often won by the athlete who can generate the greatest speed, power, and accuracy while maintaining their balance and form throughout the throw.
Meaning Of Javelin
Javelin is a track and field event that requires participants to throw a long spear-like implement called a javelin as far as possible across a horizontal field. The athlete who throws the javelin the farthest distance is declared the winner. Javelin throwers are known for their incredible strength, precision, and athleticism.
The javelin itself is made up of three parts, namely the shaft, grip, and metal head. The shaft is the long, thin part of the javelin that the thrower holds onto, while the grip or cord is located at the centre of gravity of the javelin. The cord is used to provide the thrower with a secure grip and allows them to generate more power and distance during the throw. Finally, the metal head is located at the front end of the javelin and is designed to pierce the ground when the javelin lands.
Javelin throwing has been around for centuries and was originally used as a hunting tool and as a means of warfare. In the modern era, it has become a popular Olympic sport, attracting athletes from all over the world. To become a successful javelin thrower, athletes must possess exceptional technique, power, and precision. They must also have the ability to generate a high degree of rotational force to propel the javelin as far as possible.
Javelin is a fascinating field event that requires a combination of physical and technical skills. It is an exciting and dynamic sport that requires athletes to push their physical limits and strive for excellence. Whether you’re a seasoned javelin thrower or simply an admirer of the sport, there’s no denying that javelin is a truly impressive and awe-inspiring event.
History and Development of Javelin Event
The art of throwing a javelin has been around for centuries and has evolved over time. The origin of the javelin throw can be traced back to the activities of primitive men who used wooden and other materials to carve spears to hunt for food and defend themselves from attacks. However, it wasn’t until ancient Greece that the sport was refined into a competitive event.
According to Greek history, the demigod Hercules was the first man to throw a javelin. However, historical accounts suggest that men riding on horses in ancient Greece threw javelins at specific targets while in motion. The first known competitive javelin throw event took place in 708 BC in the ancient Greek Olympic Games as part of the five pentathlon event. The pentathlon consisted of five events: running, jumping, discus throwing, wrestling, and the javelin throw.
Over time, the javelin event has undergone several developments and improvements, particularly in Europe and other parts of the world. Today, the Scandinavian countries, including Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark, have dominated in the javelin throw at the Olympic and world championship levels. These countries have developed the javelin throw to an enviable height, and their athletes have set numerous records and won several medals in this sport.
The javelin throw is an ancient sport that has evolved over time. From its origin in the activities of primitive men, the sport was refined and developed into a competitive event in ancient Greece. Today, the sport has gained global recognition, and the Scandinavian countries have dominated the sport at the highest levels. As the sport continues to evolve, it will be exciting to see what new records will be set and what countries will emerge as the new leaders in the javelin throw.
Basic Skills And Techniques In Javelin
- The grip: This is the way the competitor holds the javelin impleJavelin is a track and field event that requires a combination of physical strength, technical skills, and mental preparation. The following are some of the basic skills and techniques in javelin:
- Grip: The javelin is held with the first two fingers wrapped around the cord grip, while the thumb and last two fingers grip the spear itself.
- Run-up: The run-up is the approach to the throw. It involves a series of steps that build momentum and generates power. The number of steps varies depending on the athlete’s preference and technique.
- Plant: The plant is the moment when the athlete plants their front foot into the ground just before the throw. This is where the majority of the power is generated.
- Release: The release is the point where the javelin is thrown. The athlete should aim to release the javelin at the highest point possible while maintaining good technique.
- Flight: The flight of the javelin is influenced by the angle of release, the speed and power generated by the athlete, and the wind conditions. A good throw will result in a high, long flight.
- Follow-through: The follow-through is the continuation of the throwing motion after the javelin is released. This helps to maintain balance and control and can also add distance to the throw.
- Mental preparation: Mental preparation is also crucial in the javelin. Athletes need to be able to focus and stay calm under pressure. Visualization techniques can be used to help athletes prepare for their throws.
Common Faults in The Javelin
Javelin is a field event in athletics that requires great technical skills and physical abilities. Common faults in javelin throwing can greatly impact the performance and distance achieved by an athlete. Here are some common faults in javelin throwing and their explanations:
- Grip: Incorrect grip on the javelin can result in a poor release and a shorter throw. The javelin should be held in the palm of the throwing hand with the index and middle fingers spread apart, and the thumb placed on top of the javelin.
- Footwork: Incorrect footwork can affect the athlete’s balance and the power generated during the throw. The athlete should start with a good balanced stance, take a few steps to build momentum, and then plant the lead foot firmly into the ground before making the final throw.
- Arm action: The javelin throw is a full-body action, and incorrect arm action can cause a loss of power and accuracy. The athlete should keep the throwing arm straight and extend it fully during the throw, while the non-throwing arm should be used for balance.
- Angle of release: Incorrect angle of release can result in the javelin flying too high or too low. The javelin should be released at an angle of around 40-45 degrees to achieve maximum distance.
- Lack of follow-through: A lack of follow-through can result in a shorter throw and less power generated. The athlete should continue the throwing motion after the release, with the throwing arm swinging down and across the body.
- Over-rotating: Over-rotating during the throw can cause the athlete to lose balance and affect the accuracy of the throw. The athlete should ensure that their body is facing forward during the throw and only rotate enough to generate power.
- Rushing the throw: Rushing the throw can result in poor technique and reduced power. The athlete should take their time to set up and execute the throw with proper technique.
- Poor timing: Poor timing during the run-up or throw can result in a loss of power and accuracy. The athlete should practice timing and coordination to ensure a smooth, powerful throw.
Rules and Regulations of Javelin Events
Javelin is a field event in athletics that involves throwing a spear-like implement called a javelin. To ensure safety and fairness in the event, there are various rules and regulations that athletes must follow. Here are some of the most important rules and regulations of javelin events:
- Equipment: The javelin used in competition must be made of metal or another suitable material, and it must have a minimum weight of 800 grams for men and 600 grams for women. The length of the javelin must be between 2.6 and 2.7 meters for men and between 2.2 and 2.3 meters for women. The athlete is responsible for bringing their own javelin to the competition.
- Runway: The runway used for the javelin event must be at least 30 meters long and 4 meters wide. It must be made of a suitable material, such as cinder or synthetic material, and must be level and free of any obstacles.
- Starting position: The athlete must begin the throw from a designated starting position, which is marked on the runway. The athlete must not touch the ground outside of the starting area during the run-up.
- Throw: The javelin must be thrown overhand, and the athlete must release it before crossing the foul line, which is marked on the runway. The throw will be considered a foul if the athlete touches the foul line or the ground beyond it before releasing the javelin.
- Measuring: The distance of the throw is measured from the edge of the foul line to the point where the javelin first touches the ground.
- Safety: The athletes must be careful to avoid throwing the javelin in the direction of any spectators or officials. The javelin must also be carried with the tip pointing downwards and with the hand placed below the binding.
- Fouls: The athlete will receive a foul if they fail to throw the javelin in the correct manner or if they violate any of the rules and regulations of the event. Athletes are allowed three attempts to throw the javelin, and the best throw is counted for their score.
- Officials: The event is overseen by several officials, including a chief judge, who is responsible for ensuring that the rules and regulations are followed, and a group of field judges, who measure the throws and determine whether they are fouls.
Facilities and Equipment In Javelin
Facilities and equipment used in javelin throwing are essential for athletes to perform at their best level. Below are some of the key facilities and equipment used in javelin throwing:
- Javelin runway: Javelin throwers require a dedicated runway to perform their throws. The runway is typically 30 meters long and 4 meters wide, with a throwing sector marked out at the end.
- Throwing sector: The throwing sector is a marked-out area at the end of the runway where javelin throwers release their javelins. The sector is 8 meters wide and is marked out with white lines.
- Javelins: Javelins are long, lightweight spears that are specifically designed for throwing. There are different types of javelins, including men’s and women’s javelins, and different weight categories.
- Javelin rack: Javelin racks are used to hold javelins when not in use. They are typically located near the starting line or at the end of the runway.
- Starting blocks: Starting blocks are used by javelin throwers to get a fast and efficient start on the runway. They are typically made of lightweight materials and can be easily moved to accommodate different starting positions.
- Throwing circles: Throwing circles are used to mark out the starting positions of javelin throwers on the runway. They are typically made of plastic or rubber and come in different sizes to accommodate different throwing styles.
- Measuring tape: A measuring tape is used to measure the distance of each throw. The tape is typically marked out in meters and centimeters and is laid out along the ground from the edge of the throwing sector to the point where the javelin lands.
- Scoreboard: A scoreboard is used to display the results of each throw. It typically shows the name of the athlete, the distance of the throw, and their overall ranking.
The Officials in The Javelin Throw
In javelin throw, there are several officials who are responsible for ensuring that the competition is conducted fairly and that the rules are followed. Here are the officials involved in the javelin throw and their roles:
- Chief Judge: The Chief Judge is the highest authority in the competition and is responsible for making final decisions regarding any disputes or rule violations. The Chief Judge also oversees the work of other officials and ensures that the competition runs smoothly.
- Referees: Referees are responsible for enforcing the rules of the competition and ensuring that all athletes compete fairly. They watch the athletes during the event to make sure that no rules are broken, such as stepping over the throwing line or throwing outside the sector.
- Markers: Markers are responsible for marking the landing area of the javelin. They use a measuring tape to measure the distance of the throw and mark it on the ground.
- Starters: Starters are responsible for starting the competition and ensuring that all athletes are ready to compete. They also signal the athletes when it is their turn to throw.
- Runway Officials: Runway officials are responsible for checking the javelin for compliance with the rules and ensuring that the runway is safe for athletes to use. They also ensure that the javelin is correctly placed on the runway and that the athlete takes off from the correct point.