Values are something that is essential to every society. These are the qualities that the people are renowned for and hold in very high regard.

Beliefs that are significant to an individual or community are referred to as its values. These are the norms that emerge in society as a result of the cultural, moral, religious, or sociocultural environment that exists there. For instance, a society’s religious beliefs may influence the kinds of garments its members choose to wear. This can be the case in certain societies.

Laziness, dishonesty, theft, and other undesirable behaviours are frowned upon by the majority of societies in Nigeria today. This is due to the fact that these behaviours are unethical.

It’s possible for a single person to have certain qualities that they consider to be their core principles or values. This is due to the fact that he or she has to get an understanding of who he or she is and demonstrate to others what they may anticipate from him or her. It is essential for an individual to have personal values in order to be able to make sound decisions. For instance, who to form relationships with and who to avoid forming relationships with. Because of this, the person will act in a manner that is acceptable to the majority of the members of society. As a result, he or she will work hard to engage in behaviours that provide the impression that he or she is a responsible person. The manner in which other individuals interact with him or her will improve as a result of these factors.

Meaning of Value

The term “values” may refer to a wide variety of concepts depending on the context in which it is used. In Civic Education value means the moral principles and standards that tell people what to do. Individuals in the community have very high regard for such guiding ideas. This is the case due to the fact that they contribute to society being what it ought to be: peaceful and progressive. Among the virtues that are tolerated in society are things like honesty, integrity, courage, and loyalty.

Types of Values

There are several distinct varieties of values. The following is a list of fundamental human values:

1. Honesty is the quality of being able to speak the truth at all times.

2. Respect is showing decency towards others and oneself, including other people.

3. Self-control refers to the ability to exercise command over one’s own behaviour.

4. Equality – This refers to the realisation that all individuals have the same legal rights.

Levels of Manifestation of Values

Values often show up in different ways to help people and societies grow and develop. There is a need for the manifestation and clarity of value. Recognizing one’s own values and stating those ideals out is beneficial to the Recognizing one’s own values and stating those ideals out is beneficial to the

1. Individual Level – An individual demonstrates values by being distinct from others, regardless of what those individuals may do. For instance, a student who has a strong commitment to being honest will steadfastly refuse to cheat when they are in the testing room.

2. Societal Level: This refers to the rules and standards that regulate and impact the human behaviours and interactions that take place inside society. They include things like being time-aware, being honest, and having disciplined, among other things.

Significance of Values

The following is a list of the significance of values:

i. The exercise of values serves as a method for exercising behavioural control over individuals. If people are aware of what is expected of them, it is inevitable that they will act more appropriately.

li. When we have an understanding of the values that are held in our society, we will have a feeling of belonging to that culture.

i. Values assist us in arriving at the appropriate choices about certain aspects of society; in fact, the values of the society are often used to inform and direct the choices that individuals and groups make.

ii. When we have an understanding of our own values, not only will we be better able to respect the values of other people, but we will also be better able to resist the impulse to copy the values and behaviours of other people, particularly if those values and behaviours are damaging to us.

iii. Values are what provide a person, a family, and a community a sense of direction and purpose in life since they dictate appropriate behaviour.

Factors that Promote Value Systems

The following are some elements that contribute to the maintenance of a good value system.

i. Consistency: Being consistent means always doing or acting the same way. When a person’s manner of life can be anticipated, one might say that the individual is consistent. When someone makes a statement, you should be able to rely on them to keep their word if they are consistent. A constant individual is dependable and intent on the task at hand. They are not easily influenced by the showy unpleasant things that are going on around them.

ii. Trust: Believing that you can’t be tricked or lied to. When you have confidence in another person, you are able to collaborate with that person, confide in that person, and even do things for that person, even if it is against your own personal comfort.

iii. Tolerance is the ability to accept the thoughts, beliefs, actions, etc. of other people. It is OK to live together, even if you don’t have a lot of things in common with the other person. Accepting the viewpoints and opinions of other people, especially when they are in direct opposition to your own, is an essential component of tolerance. It is acknowledging the rights of other people despite the fact that you do not have the same opinions as them.

iv. Fairness: This is being able to treat other people the way they deserve to be treated. When people in a society are praised for their achievements and those who engage in unethical behaviour are chastised, this creates an atmosphere of fairness. When those who are not competent to hold specific jobs or posts are granted the spot, while others who are eligible are denied the opportunity to fill such positions, this creates an unjust scenario.

Integrity: Having integrity means being known for being honest. A person with integrity is one who is recognised to support that which is good in society and to detest that which is evil in society. Someone like that is cherished by the vast majority of people.

Vi. Harmony: A society is in harmony when the people live and work together in unity and peace. People in cultures where there is harmony will always be able to find a solution to settle their differences when conflicts arise. A society that lives in peace is always working together to find answers to the challenges that it faces. This is due to the fact that when there is harmony in the community, both the happiness of the individual and the happiness of the society as a whole are ensured.

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