Meaning of Federation 

Nigeria as A Federation

A Federation is a system of governance in which there is a constitutional division of powers between the central government and other component units constituting the union or federation that is a division of powers between the federal government and the states within the nation. This division of powers occurs within the United States of America. It is also sometimes referred to as a federation or a federal system of governance.

Countries that Practice a Federal System of Government

The following are some of them

1. Australia 

2. Nigeria 

3. The United States of America  

4. Switzerland 

5. Canada etc

Meaning of Exclusive Residual List

Exclusive List

The phrase “Exclusive List” refers to a list of goods, subjects, or activities for which the federal government is the only body that has the authority to pass legislation. Regarding the whole of the exclusive list, neither the state nor the local governments have any voice in the matter.

The federal has the authority on the following 

2. Immigration

3. Emigration

4. Foreign Affairs

5. Currency Matters

6. Internal Affairs

7. Defense

Residual List

This is a list of all activities, subjects, or things for which only the state government has the right to establish laws. They are as follows:

1. Chieftainship issues 

2. Markets etc

Concurrent List

This is a list of objects, subjects, or activities, areas in which both the state and the federal governments may engage. This list includes the following items: 

i. Need for Federation in Health Care 

ii. Need for Federation in Education 

iii. Need for Federation in Agriculture 

iv. Need for Federation in Roads 

v. Need for Federation in Agriculture

Reasons Why a Federation or Federal Form of Governance Is Necessary 

There are many reasons why a federation or federal form of governance is necessary for the nation of Nigeria. These are the

1. National Integration: We will have an easier time achieving national integration, also known as national unity if we have a federal government to oversee the federating units, which are the states.

2. Development The federal form of government will make it possible for the states and local governments to grow in an even manner, that is, in tandem with one another.

3. Geographical Sizes: Given Nigeria’s vast geography, the federal system of government would facilitate the administration of the federal, state, and local governments.

4. Economic Factor or Reason: The necessity to combine our resources to create a stronger financial entity or a wealthier nation.

5. Interest of Minorities: The federal system is what guarantees that minority tribes or ethnic groups are not overlooked or forgotten in the growth of the country. This is because the federal system ensures that minority interests are protected.

Characteristics of A Federation

1. Division of Powers: The federal government, state governments, and local governments all have their distinct roles and responsibilities under the United States Constitution.

2. The supremacy of the Constitution: The constitution is considered to have the greatest or most authoritative authority in any federation.

3. Written and rigid constitution: The federal constitution is always written and rigid so that no unit can be manipulated or pushed to the side.

4. The Existence of a Bi-Cameral Legislature In a federal system, the body that makes laws at the federal level must be bi-cameral, which means it must consist of two chambers. In Nigeria, the two houses of parliament are called the House of Representatives and the Senate.

5. The Existence of the Supreme Court The nation must have a supreme court, which is the highest court of justice in the country. This need must be met. In Nigeria, every legal dispute must be decided according to the judgment of the highest court.

Relationship Between Federal, State and Local Government 

1. The Federal Government Is Considered to Be the central Government. It is in charge of defense, police, the army, international relations, concerns pertaining to money, and other such things. It exercises authority over the various state and municipal administrations.

2. The state governors are the leaders of their respective state governments and serve as the state’s chief executive officer. The State Governor is responsible for overseeing several state agencies, such as the State Council of Chiefs and the State Civil Service Commission. The governor serves as the chairperson of the State Executive Council, which is charged with ensuring that the state is managed efficiently.

The third level or tier of government in the country is the local government. The chairman of the local government serves as its leader. Bye-laws are another name for the legislation that are enacted at the local level.

Differences between the federal, state, and local government

These are the primary differences between their roles: 

1. The Federal Government is responsible for the formulation and execution of national policies, i.e., the carrying out of such policies. Nevertheless, the states and the local governments each have their own areas of responsibility that they are responsible for.

2. The power to control the states and local governments rests with the federal government, while the states and local governments lack the ability to exercise control over the federal government.

3. The distribution of funds from the federation account to the other levels of government, including the federal, state, and local government, is known as allocation.

4. The President serves as the chief executive officer of the Federal Executive Council. It is composed of former leaders of state, governors of states, and ministers from each state.

5.The Senate and the House of Representatives are the two parts of the Federal Government that make laws.

6. Each state and local government has a legislature with only one house (i.e only one law-making house or office.)

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