Back to: Jss2 Physical and Health Education (BST)
Topic: Non-communicable Diseases
WEEK: 7 & 8
Diseases can have a significant impact on an individual’s overall health, affecting both physical and mental well-being. They can cause a range of symptoms that vary in severity, including pain, fatigue, and cognitive impairment. These symptoms can prevent individuals from performing their daily activities, leading to a decrease in their quality of life.
Furthermore, diseases can also affect an individual’s ability to work efficiently, leading to reduced productivity and a decline in their economic and social status. For example, chronic illnesses such as diabetes or heart disease can require frequent medical appointments and ongoing treatment, making it difficult for individuals to maintain a steady work schedule. Additionally, the cost of medical treatment can be a significant financial burden, further hindering economic stability.
Non-communicable diseases are particularly problematic, as they are the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. These diseases, also known as chronic diseases, are long-lasting and often worsen over time. They include conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes, and can be caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle choices, genetics, and environmental factors.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a type of medical condition that cannot be transmitted from one individual to another through contact or exchange of bodily fluids. Unlike communicable diseases such as influenza or tuberculosis, NCDs are caused by factors other than infectious pathogens, such as genetic predisposition, environmental influences, or lifestyle choices.
Examples of NCDs include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory conditions, among others. These illnesses often develop over a prolonged period and may have a significant impact on an individual’s quality of life and overall health outcomes.
Genetic factors play a crucial role in the development of some NCDs. For example, certain types of cancer may be caused by inherited genetic mutations, while others may be triggered by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation or chemicals.
Lifestyle choices such as tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor dietary habits can also increase an individual’s risk of developing NCDs. Smoking, for instance, is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer. Similarly, a diet high in saturated fat, salt, and sugar can increase the likelihood of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic conditions.
The prevention and management of NCDs require a multifaceted approach that involves addressing both genetic and lifestyle factors. By promoting healthy lifestyle choices, encouraging regular screenings and check-ups, and investing in research and development, we can reduce the burden of NCDs on individuals and society as a whole.
Examples of non-communicable diseases factors are as follows;
|Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)||Chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations||High blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, family history||Regular exercise, healthy diet, quitting smoking, managing blood pressure and cholesterol, maintain a healthy weight|
|Cancer||Unexplained weight loss, fatigue, pain, skin changes, abnormal bleeding||Genetic mutations, environmental factors (such as UV radiation and tobacco smoke), lifestyle factors (such as poor diet and lack of exercise)||Regular cancer screenings, healthy lifestyle choices (such as avoiding tobacco and limiting alcohol consumption), protecting yourself from environmental risk factors|
|Diabetes||Increased thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, slow healing wounds||Family history, obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet||Maintain a healthy weight, exercise regularly, eat a healthy diet, monitor blood sugar levels, manage stress|
|Chronic Respiratory Disease||Shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness||Smoking, air pollution, occupational exposure to dust and chemicals||Regular exercise, healthy diet, quitting smoking, managing blood pressure and cholesterol, maintaining a healthy weight|
|Alzheimer’s Disease||Memory loss, confusion, difficulty completing familiar tasks||Genetic factors, age, lifestyle factors||Avoid smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke, reduce exposure to air pollution, and protect yourself from occupational hazards|
|Osteoporosis||Bone pain, fractures, loss of height||Regular exercise, mental stimulation, a healthy diet, controlling blood pressure and cholesterol, avoiding head injuries||Eat a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, get regular exercise, avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption|
|Obesity||Excess body fat, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes||Poor diet, lack of exercise, genetics, hormonal imbalances||Regular exercise, healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, managing stress|
|Arthritis||Joint pain, stiffness, swelling||Ageing, hormonal changes, poor diet, lack of exercise, family history||Regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, protecting your joints from injury|
|Mental Health Disorders||Anxiety, depression, mood swings, irritability||Genetic factors, environmental factors, trauma||Ageing, injury, infection, autoimmune disorders|
|Chronic Kidney Disease||Fatigue, nausea, swelling, changes in urination||Diabetes, high blood pressure, family history, age||Manage blood pressure and diabetes, maintain a healthy weight, avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption|
|Gastrointestinal Disorders||Maintain a healthy lifestyle, seek treatment if necessary, and practice stress management and relaxation techniques||Genetics, poor diet, infection, stress||Eat a healthy diet, manage stress, avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption|
|Dental Disease||Tooth decay, gum disease, tooth loss||Poor oral hygiene, poor diet, genetics||Brush and floss regularly, eat a healthy diet, avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, visit the dentist regularly|
|Eye Disorders||Blurred vision, floaters, dry eyes||Abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea, constipation||Protect your eyes from injury, get regular eye exams, maintain a healthy lifestyle|
|Skin Disorders||Acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin cancer||Genetics, environmental factors, poor diet, stress||Ageing, genetics, injury, certain medications|
|Hearing Loss||Difficulty hearing, tinnitus||Protect your skin from sun exposure, maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle, and seek treatment if necessary||Protect your ears from loud noises, get regular hearing exams, avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption|