Back to: Jss3 Physical and Health Education (BST)
Topic: Non-Contact Games
WEEK: 4 & 5
A non-contact game is any type of game where participants do not engage in physical contact with each other. These types of games can vary widely in terms of rules, equipment, and playing styles. Non-contact games are often played for recreational or competitive purposes and are a great way to promote physical fitness, social interaction, and cognitive development.
Examples of non-contact games include swimming, gymnastics, badminton, tennis, cricket, volleyball, and golf. Each of these games requires participants to use different skills and strategies to compete, but they all share the common characteristic of not involving physical contact between players.
Swimming and gymnastics are two popular non-contact games that offer unique challenges and benefits for participants. Swimming is a great form of exercise that requires strong cardiovascular endurance and excellent technique. Swimmers must use their entire body to move through the water efficiently and effectively, which can improve overall strength, flexibility, and coordination.
Gymnastics, on the other hand, requires a combination of strength, balance, and agility to perform a variety of acrobatic moves and routines. Gymnasts must train extensively to develop the physical and mental skills necessary to perform at a high level, making it a challenging and rewarding non-contact game.
Swimming is a popular non-contact sport that involves propelling oneself through water using various techniques such as the arms and legs. It is widely regarded as one of the best forms of exercise, as it provides a full-body workout and is low-impact, making it suitable for people of all ages and abilities. In fact, swimming is the second largest sport competed for during the Olympic Games, highlighting its global appeal.
At the junior secondary school level, students are typically introduced to the basic skills of swimming in Jss1. As they progress to Jss3, they will be taught more advanced techniques known as strokes. These strokes include freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly, which are the different styles by which one can swim. With proper training, students can learn to master these strokes and become competent swimmers.
In addition to swimming, students in Jss3 will also be introduced to the sport of gymnastics. Gymnastics is another form of non-contact sport that emphasizes flexibility, balance, and strength. It is divided into several classifications, including artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, and trampoline gymnastics.
Artistic gymnastics involves performing routines on various apparatus, such as the balance beam, uneven bars, and vault. Rhythmic gymnastics involves using handheld apparatus such as ropes, hoops, and balls to perform choreographed routines. Trampoline gymnastics involves performing aerial manoeuvres on a trampoline.
Aside from its physical benefits, gymnastics also teaches students important life skills such as perseverance, discipline, and teamwork. Students will learn how to work together as a team and support one another in achieving common goals.
Brief History Of Swimming Sport
Swimming is a popular water sport that involves the movement of the body through water using various techniques such as breaststroke, freestyle, backstroke, and butterfly. The sport has a rich history dating back to ancient times when humans first learned to swim for survival, transportation, and recreation.
Over time, swimming evolved from a survival skill to a competitive sport. The first recorded swimming competition took place in Japan in 36 BC. It was a 3,000-meter race across a river, and the winner received a monetary reward.
In modern times, the organization that governs swimming globally is the Federation Internationale de Natation (FINA). FINA was established in 1908 in London and is responsible for setting rules and regulations for swimming competitions and events. FINA is also responsible for organizing world championships and Olympic swimming events.
In Nigeria, the governing body for swimming competitions is the Nigerian Swimming Federation (NSF), which was founded in 1958. The NSF is responsible for promoting and developing swimming in Nigeria by organizing local, national, and international competitions.
Swimming equipment has also evolved over time. Today, swimmers wear specialized swimsuits that are designed to reduce drag and increase speed. Other equipment includes swimming goggles, earplugs, nose clips, and swimming caps.
Swimming officials play an essential role in ensuring the safety and fairness of swimming competitions. Officials include lifeguards, stroke judges, finishing judges, referees, announcers, and timekeepers. These officials are responsible for ensuring that swimmers adhere to the rules and regulations of the sport and that the competition runs smoothly.
Basic Skills Of Swimming (Strokes)
Swimming is a popular recreational and competitive sport that can also be a valuable life skill. Learning to swim requires developing some basic skills that will enable swimmers to move efficiently and comfortably through the water. Here are some of the fundamental skills of swimming:
- Floating – The ability to float in the water is a crucial skill to learn for beginners. The floating technique helps to relax the body and conserve energy while swimming.
- Breathing – Proper breathing is essential in swimming. Beginners need to learn how to exhale and inhale at the right time and in the right way to ensure that they can maintain a continuous and efficient stroke.
- Kicking – The kicking technique involves the movement of the legs and feet to propel the body forward in the water. Proper kicking helps to maintain a steady and smooth stroke.
- Arm movement – Arm movement is a critical aspect of swimming, and beginners must learn the correct technique for it. The arm movement involves the extension of the arms forward, the pullback of the arms, and the recovery of the arms back to the starting position.
- Bilateral breathing – Bilateral breathing is the ability to breathe on both sides while swimming. This technique helps to develop balance and coordination in the water and can be helpful in open-water swimming.
- Treading water – Treading water is the ability to keep the body afloat in a vertical position without using any forward motion. This skill is essential for safety and survival in the water.
Swimming Facilities and Equipment
Swimming is a great form of exercise that is enjoyed by people of all ages. To facilitate swimming, there are various swimming facilities and equipment available. Here are some of the most common ones:
- Swimming Pools: Swimming pools are the most basic and essential facility required for swimming. They come in various shapes and sizes and can be found in both indoor and outdoor settings.
- Starting Blocks: Starting blocks are used in competitive swimming to provide a solid platform for swimmers to push off from at the beginning of a race.
- Lane Lines: Lane lines are used to divide swimming pools into separate lanes, allowing multiple swimmers to swim at the same time without interfering with each other.
- Diving Boards: Diving boards are used in swimming pools to provide a platform for swimmers to dive into the water.
- Swim Caps: Swim caps are worn by swimmers to keep their hair out of their faces and to reduce drag while swimming.
- Goggles: Goggles are worn by swimmers to protect their eyes from the chlorine in the water and to help them see underwater.
- Kickboards: Kickboards are used to isolate the legs during swimming practice and to help swimmers develop their kicking technique.
- Pull Buoys: Pull buoys are used to isolate the arms during swimming practice and to help swimmers develop their arm stroke technique.
- Fins: Fins are worn by swimmers to help improve their leg strength and kicking technique.
- Hand Paddles: Hand paddles are used to increase resistance during swimming practice and to help swimmers develop their arm strength and technique.
- Snorkels: Snorkels are used to help swimmers breathe while keeping their face in the water, allowing them to focus on their swimming technique without interrupting breathing.
- Timing Systems: Timing systems are used in competitive swimming to accurately measure the time it takes for swimmers to complete a race.
The following are swimming events competed at the Olympics for males and females
|1||50 metre freestyle||Male and Female|
|2||100 metre freestyle||Male and Female|
|3||200 metre freestyle||Male and Female|
|4||400 metre freestyle||Male and Female|
|5||800 metre freestyle||Female only|
|6||1500 metre freestyle||Male only|
|7||100 metre backstroke||Male and Female|
|8||200 metre backstroke||Male and Female|
|9||100 metre breaststroke||Male and Female|
|10||200 metre breaststroke||Male and Female|
|11||100 metre butterfly||Male and Female|
|12||200 metre butterfly||Male and Female|
|13||200 metre individual medley||Male and Female|
|14||400 metre individual medley||Male and Female|
|15||4 x 100 metre freestyle relay||Male and Female|
|16||4 x 200 metre freestyle relay||Male and Female|
|17||4 x 100 metre medley relay||Male and Female|
|18||Marathon 10 km||Male and Female|
Officials in Swimming and their Duties
There are several officials in swimming who are responsible for ensuring that competitions are conducted fairly, efficiently, and safely. Here are some of the key officials in swimming and their duties:
- Referee: The referee is the overall authority at a swimming competition. They are responsible for ensuring that the competition is conducted according to the rules, and they have the final say in any disputes or protests. The referee has the power to disqualify swimmers for rule violations, and they can stop or postpone a race if necessary.
- Starter: The starter is responsible for ensuring that each race begins fairly and at the correct time. They use a starting pistol or electronic device to signal the start of the race, and they must ensure that all swimmers are ready to begin before starting the race.
- Stroke Judge: Stroke judges are responsible for monitoring the swimmers during the race to ensure that they are using the correct strokes and techniques. They watch the swimmers closely and use their judgment to determine if a swimmer is breaking any rules. If a stroke judge sees a violation, they report it to the referee.
- Turn Judge: Turn judges are responsible for monitoring the turns and finishes of each race. They ensure that the swimmers touch the wall at the appropriate time and in the correct manner, and they report any violations to the referee.
- Timer: Timers are responsible for timing each race and recording the times for each swimmer. They use electronic timing systems or manual stopwatches to record the times, and they must be accurate and consistent in their timing.
- Chief Judge: The chief judge is responsible for overseeing all of the officials and ensuring that they are performing their duties correctly. They are the liaison between the officials and the referee, and they are responsible for resolving any disputes or protests that arise.