Back to: Jss1 Agricultural Science (PVS)
Topic: Meaning of Pest
WEEK: 1 & 2
Meaning of Pests
Pests are organisms that cause damage or nuisance to crops, animals, and humans. They can be insects, rodents, birds, fungi, weeds, or any other organism that negatively affects the environment, health, or economy.
Pests can cause significant losses in agriculture, forestry, and other natural resources, and can also be a threat to public health, causing diseases, allergies, and injuries. They can also damage infrastructure, buildings, and other property.
Controlling pests is an important part of managing ecosystems and maintaining the health and safety of humans and other living beings. Various methods are used to control pests, including chemical pesticides, biological control agents, cultural practices, and mechanical methods. The choice of method depends on the type of pest, the severity of the infestation, and the environmental and health risks associated with the control method.
Classification of Pest
- Insect pests: Insects are the most common type of pests. They include beetles, moths, flies, ants, termites, and many others. Insect pests cause damage by feeding on plants, fruits, and vegetables. They can also transmit diseases and cause allergic reactions in humans and animals.
- Vertebrate pests: Vertebrate pests are animals with backbones that cause damage. These include rodents such as rats and mice, birds, and larger animals like deer and rabbits. Vertebrate pests can cause damage to crops and structures, and they can also transmit diseases to humans and other animals.
- Microbial pests: Microbial pests are microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They cause diseases in plants, animals, and humans. Examples of microbial pests include plant pathogens that cause crop diseases, human pathogens that cause foodborne illnesses, and fungi that cause structural damage to buildings.
classification of insect pest based on the mouth part
Insects are categorized into different groups based on their mouthparts and feeding habits. The classification based on mouthparts helps to identify which insects are most likely to cause damage to crops and plants. The four main types of mouthparts and their associated insect groups are:
Insects are a diverse group of animals with unique characteristics that differentiate them from other animals. One of the ways that entomologists categorize insects is based on their mouthparts and feeding habits. This classification helps identify which insects are likely to cause damage to crops and plants. In general, insects can be categorized into four main groups based on their mouthparts:
Chewing insects are a group of insects that have mouthparts designed to chew and grind plant material. These insects are typically herbivores and feed on a variety of plants, including trees, shrubs, grasses, and crops.
Some common chewing insects include caterpillars, beetles, grasshoppers, and crickets. These insects can cause significant damage to plants by consuming leaves, stems, and other plant parts.
There are several methods of controlling chewing insects, including the use of insecticides, biological control agents such as predators and parasites, and cultural practices such as crop rotation and the removal of plant debris.
It is important to identify the specific type of chewing insect present to choose the most effective control method. In some cases, natural enemies such as birds and beneficial insects may be able to control chewing insect populations without the need for chemical intervention.
Sucking insects are a type of insect that feeds by piercing and sucking the sap from plant tissues. This group includes a variety of insects, such as aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scales, and leafhoppers.
These insects use specialized mouthparts called stylets to pierce through the plant tissue and suck out the sap. They can cause significant damage to plants, often leading to stunted growth, leaf discolouration, and even death.
Sucking insects can also transmit plant diseases, such as viruses, from one plant to another. Therefore, controlling these insects is essential for maintaining healthy plants.
There are several methods of controlling sucking insects, including physical removal, biological control, and the use of insecticides. Physical removal involves physically removing the insects from the plant using tools such as a high-pressure hose or handpicking. Biological control involves introducing natural predators or parasites of the insects to control their populations. Insecticides can also be used to control sucking insects, but it’s important to choose an appropriate product that won’t harm beneficial insects or the environment.
Piercing insects are a group of insects that have specialized mouthparts for piercing and sucking fluids from their hosts. These insects are known for their ability to feed on plant sap, blood, or other fluids from animals. Some examples of piercing insects include mosquitoes, ticks, bed bugs, fleas, and lice.
Mosquitoes are perhaps the most well-known piercing insects, as they feed on the blood of animals and humans. They are known to transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Zika virus.
Ticks are another type of piercing insect that feeds on the blood of animals, including humans. They are known to transmit diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and babesiosis.
Bed bugs are small, flat insects that feed on the blood of humans and animals while they sleep. They are known to cause skin irritation and psychological distress.
Fleas are small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of animals, including humans. They are known to transmit diseases such as bubonic plague and typhus.
Lice are small, wingless insects that live on the hair and skin of animals, including humans. They feed on blood and can cause skin irritation and itching.
piercing insects can be a nuisance and a health hazard to humans and animals alike. It’s important to take steps to prevent infestations and protect yourself from these insects when spending time outdoors or travelling to areas where they are common.
Rasping insects refer to a group of insects that use their mandibles or other structures to scrape or rasp against surfaces to feed. These insects can be found in a variety of different orders including Coleoptera (beetles), Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets), and Hemiptera (true bugs).
Some examples of rasping insects include:
- Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata): This beetle feeds on potato plants and other members of the nightshade family by rasping on the leaves.
- Mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae): These underground-dwelling insects use their strong mandibles to rasp roots and other plant material.
- Stink bugs (Pentatomidae): These true bugs have specialized mouthparts that allow them to rasp on plant material to feed.
- Sawflies (Symphyta): These insects have a saw-like ovipositor that they use to rasp into plants to lay their eggs.
Rasping insects can be both beneficial and harmful to humans and the environment. Some species can be pests that damage crops or gardens, while others can be important pollinators or predators of other insect pests.