Pillars of Democracy

The term pillars of democracy refer to the fundamental components that must be present for democratic governance to function effectively. These are the mechanisms that have to be in place for democracy to be able to function effectively throughout time. Democracy will be rendered pointless in their absence. The following are some of them:


Without the people, society will not exist, and without the people, there will be no democracy since it is the people who will put it into effect. Without the people, society will not exist. Every kind of government requires people in order to operate properly, which is why the people of a country play such an important part in ensuring the system’s success in that nation. The following functions of the people are essential to the operation of a democratic government. These are

  1. the right to vote in elections.
  2. A willingness to participate in democratic processes.
  3. Fidelity to one’s own country.
  4. A willingness to join with a certain political party.
  5. A readiness to do duties for the good of the nation.

The Arms of The Government 

This refers to the organ of government. They are known as the Legislative arm, the Executive arm

They are known as the Legislative arm, the Executive arm


The Senate and the House of Representatives make up the body that is known as the legislature. They are the body of the government that is responsible for creating laws. The person who presides over the House of Representatives is known as the Speaker, while the Senate is headed by the Senate President. There is only one House of Assembly at the state level, and its leader is referred to as the Speaker. The following is a list of some of its functions:

  1. Lawmaking: The primary function of the legislature is to make laws for the country. The National Assembly, which is the highest legislative body in Nigeria, has the power to enact laws on matters within the exclusive list in the Constitution, while the State Houses of Assembly make laws for their respective states.
  2. Representation: Another important function of the legislature is to represent the people. Members of the National Assembly and State Houses of Assembly are elected by their constituents to represent their interests and provide a voice for their communities.
  3. Oversight: The legislature also has a responsibility to provide oversight over the executive arm of government. This includes the power to investigate government activities and hold the executive accountable for their actions.
  4. Budgetary Allocation: The legislature is responsible for approving the national budget and ensuring that it reflects the needs and priorities of the country.
  5. Confirmation of Appointments: The legislature also has the power to confirm appointments made by the executive branch. This includes appointments to government agencies, boards, and commissions.


This is the organ that is responsible for enforcing the nation’s laws and regulations.

The president serves as the head of the executive arm at the federal level, while the governor serves in that capacity at the state level, and the chairman serves in that capacity at the local government level. Among its many responsibilities are the following: 

  1. Policy Formulation: One of the key functions of the Executive arm of government in Nigeria is to formulate policies that guide the development and progress of the nation. This involves identifying the key issues and challenges facing the country, developing strategies to address them, and implementing plans that promote sustainable development.
  2. Implementation of Laws: The Executive is responsible for enforcing laws and regulations enacted by the legislative arm of government. This involves ensuring compliance with legal provisions, preventing corruption and other forms of criminal activity, and protecting the rights and freedoms of citizens.
  3. Administration of the Budget: Another important function of the Executive in Nigeria is the administration of the national budget. This involves overseeing the allocation of funds to various sectors of the economy, ensuring that government spending is in line with development priorities, and monitoring the use of public resources.
  4. Foreign Affairs: The Executive is responsible for managing Nigeria’s foreign affairs and relations with other countries. This involves negotiating and signing treaties, promoting diplomatic ties, and representing the country on the global stage.
  5. National Security: The Executive is also responsible for ensuring the safety and security of the Nigerian people. This involves providing adequate protection against external threats, maintaining law and order, and managing crises and emergencies that may arise.
  6. Economic Development: The Executive is also responsible for promoting economic growth and development in Nigeria. This involves creating an enabling environment for business and investment, promoting job creation, and implementing policies that support economic diversification and sustainable development.
  7. Social Welfare: The Executive is also responsible for promoting the welfare and well-being of citizens. This involves providing access to basic services such as healthcare, education, housing, and social security, as well as promoting gender equality, human rights, and social justice.


The magistrates, judges, and chief judges that make up this arm of the government are responsible for providing an interpretation of the laws that were passed by the legislature. The Chief Justice of the Federation is the most senior judge in the Nigerian judicial system. The following is a list of some of its functions:

  1. Adjudication: One of the primary functions of the judiciary in Nigeria is to adjudicate legal disputes between parties. This involves the interpretation and application of the law and the determination of the rights and obligations of the parties involved.
  2. Judicial Review: The judiciary also has the power of judicial review, which allows it to examine the decisions of other branches of government (such as the executive or legislative) to ensure that they are in line with the Constitution and other relevant laws.
  3. Protection of Rights: Another key function of the judiciary is to protect the rights and freedoms of citizens. This includes ensuring that individuals are not unlawfully detained or deprived of their liberty and that they are treated fairly and justly in legal proceedings.
  4. Law Making: While the primary responsibility for making laws in Nigeria lies with the legislature, the judiciary also plays a role in shaping the law through its interpretation and application of existing laws.
  5. Arbitration and Mediation: The judiciary also provides a forum for the resolution of disputes through alternative dispute resolution mechanisms such as arbitration and mediation.
  6. Contempt Proceedings: The judiciary also has the power to initiate contempt proceedings against individuals who disobey its orders or otherwise undermine the authority of the court.
  7. Appointment of Judges: The judiciary is responsible for appointing judges to the various courts in Nigeria, and ensuring that they are qualified and competent to perform their duties.

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