Back to: Jss2 Civic Education (NVE)
Topic: Punishable Offenses
WEEK: 5 & 6
Punishable offences refer to actions or behaviour that are considered illegal or against the law and are punishable by law enforcement agencies. The types of punishable offences can vary depending on the country or jurisdiction. Generally, punishable offences fall into two main categories: misdemeanours and felonies.
Meaning of Law
Laws are the rules and regulations that assist a society in being orderly so that it may have peace, development, and harmony. Having laws in place is essential to achieving these goals. In a society like this, everyone has a responsibility to uphold the law and preserve order. If these are not followed, there will be disorder and anarchy as a result. This often results in the declaration of states of emergency, curfews, and other such measures. A person who evades capture by law enforcement is referred to as a fugitive. There are offences that have the potential to disrupt the equilibrium of society. The following are examples of some of them:
4. Theft as well as armed robbery
6. Drug trafficking smuggling.
7. Child trafficking.
8. Electoral malpractices.
- Fraud: Fraud refers to a deliberate deception or misrepresentation made for personal gain or to cause harm to another person or organization. Examples of fraud include identity theft, bank fraud, and Ponzi schemes.
- Murder: Murder is the unlawful killing of another person with malice aforethought. This means that the perpetrator intended to cause the victim’s death or acted with extreme recklessness or indifference to human life.
- Rape: Rape is a form of sexual assault that involves non-consensual sexual activity. It occurs when someone uses force or coercion to engage in sexual activity with another person without their consent.
- Theft as well as armed robbery: Theft is the act of taking someone else’s property without their permission, while armed robbery involves the use of force or violence to steal from someone. Both are criminal offences and can result in severe penalties.
- Kidnapping: Kidnapping involves the abduction and illegal detention of a person, often for ransom or other purposes. It is a serious crime that can result in severe psychological and physical harm to the victim.
- Drug trafficking/smuggling: Drug trafficking involves the illegal transportation, distribution, and sale of drugs. It is a major source of revenue for organized crime and can cause significant harm to individuals and society as a whole.
- Child trafficking: Child trafficking is the illegal transportation, recruitment, and exploitation of children for various purposes, including forced labour, prostitution, and organ harvesting. It is a severe form of human trafficking and can cause significant harm to children.
- Electoral malpractices: Electoral malpractices refer to any actions that violate the rules and regulations of an election, including voter intimidation, ballot stuffing, and vote buying. They undermine the integrity of the democratic process and can lead to an unfair and illegitimate election outcome.
- Assault: Assault is the act of intentionally causing another person to fear immediate harm or causing physical harm to another person. It can take many forms, including verbal threats, physical violence, and sexual assault.
Punishment for Breaking the Law
- Imprisonment: This is a common punishment for criminal offences in Nigeria. Offenders may be sentenced to serve time in prison ranging from a few months to several years, depending on the severity of the offence.
- Fines: Fines are a common form of punishment for minor offences, such as traffic violations. The amount of the fine varies depending on the offence and can range from a few thousand naira to millions of naira.
- Community Service: Some offenders may be sentenced to perform community service as a form of punishment. This involves performing unpaid work for a specified period, such as cleaning public spaces or assisting in charity organizations.
- Probation: Probation is a form of punishment where the offender is released back into the community but must adhere to certain conditions, such as regular reporting to a probation officer or staying away from certain people or places.
- Corporal punishment: Although it is illegal in Nigeria, corporal punishment, such as flogging, caning or whipping, is still used as a form of punishment in some parts of the country, particularly in religious or traditional settings.
- Death Penalty: Capital punishment is still in practice in Nigeria for certain offences such as murder, armed robbery, treason, and terrorism. However, the use of the death penalty is controversial and has been the subject of debate and criticism.
- Amputation: In some civilizations, the practice of amputation is used as a form of punishment for certain crimes. This involves the surgical removal of a body part, such as a hand, as a means of punishment.
- Revocation of rights, status, or property: Law can also involve the revocation of one’s rights, status, or property as a form of punishment. For example, a person who is convicted of a crime may lose their right to vote or own a firearm.
- Flogging: Flogging is a form of corporal punishment that involves the beating of an offender with a whip or other instrument. It is often used as a punishment for certain crimes in some societies.
- Payment of penalties: Another common form of punishment in law is the payment of penalties. This can take the form of fines, restitution to the victim, or other forms of financial compensation.