Back to: Jss1 Physical and Health Education (BST)
Topic: Shot Put
WEEK: 2 & 3
Shot put is a track and field event in which athletes throw a heavy metal ball called a shot as far as possible. The shot is made of brass, iron, or steel and typically weighs around 7.26 kilograms (16 pounds) for men and 4 kilograms (8.8 pounds) for women.
The athlete stands in a circle with a diameter of 2.135 meters (7 feet) and must not step outside the circle during the throw. The shot is held in the throwing hand, which is placed at the base of the neck, and the other hand is used to balance the body. The athlete then spins around in a crouched position, gaining momentum before releasing the shot.
The distance of the throw is measured from the inner edge of the circle to the landing point of the shot, with the farthest throw being declared the winner. The sport requires a combination of strength, technique, and speed, and is a popular event in track and field competitions, including the Olympics.
The History and Origin of The Shot Put
The shot put is a track and field event that involves throwing a heavy spherical object, known as a shot, as far as possible. The event has its roots in ancient Greece, where it was part of the pentathlon, a five-event athletic competition.
The modern form of the shot put emerged in the 19th century in England, where it became a popular athletic event. The first recorded shot put competition took place in Scotland in 1875, and the event was included in the first modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.
In Nigeria, athletics has a long history, and the country has produced several world-class track and field athletes. The shot put, however, is not traditionally one of Nigeria’s strongest events, with most of the country’s success coming in sprints and middle-distance running.
One notable Nigerian shot put athlete is Chukwuebuka Enekwechi, who was born in Imo State, Nigeria in 1992. Enekwechi began his athletics career as a discus thrower but switched to shot put in 2012. He has since become one of Nigeria’s top shot put athletes and has represented the country at several international competitions, including the Commonwealth Games and the World Championships.
Another Nigerian shot put athlete is Stephen Mozia, who was born in New York City to Nigerian parents. Mozia began his shot put a career in high school and went on to compete for Nigeria at the 2014 Commonwealth Games, where he won a bronze medal. He has also represented Nigeria at the World Championships and the African Championships.
Shot Put Specification
|Weight||7.26 kilograms for men; 4 kilograms for women|
|Diameter||110-130 millimetres for men; 95-110 millimetres for women|
|Material||Metal, usually made of brass, iron, or steel|
|Surface||Smooth, with no visible irregularities|
|Grip||Must be able to fit within a 4 cm diameter cylinder|
|Release Technique||Putters must push the shot out of their hand with their fingers, not throw it|
|Landing Area||A 7-meter sector marked with lines, with the distance measured from the inside of the circle to the first mark in the landing area|
Note: These are the standard specifications for international competitions governed by World Athletics. Some local competitions may have slightly different specifications.
The Discus Throw
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc, typically made of metal or composite materials, as far as possible. The discus is circular in shape, with a diameter of 22 centimetres (8.66 inches) for men and 18 centimetres (7.09 inches) for women, and weighs 2 kilograms (4.4 pounds) for men and 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) for women.
In competition, the athlete must throw the discus from within a marked circle, and the throw is measured from the point where the discus first lands in the field. The athlete is given three attempts to achieve their best distance, with the top eight athletes advancing to a final round of three additional throws.
To achieve a successful throw, the athlete must use a combination of strength, speed, and technique. The athlete begins by spinning in a circle, building up momentum before releasing the discus. The throw must be executed within a specified time limit, typically around 60 seconds.
The world record for the men’s discus throw is held by Jurgen Schult of Germany, who threw 74.08 meters (243 feet 0.5 inches) in 1986. The women’s world record is held by Gabriele Reinsch of East Germany, who threw 76.80 meters (252 feet 0.25 inches) in 1988.
The History and Origin of The Discus Throw
The Discus Throw is an ancient track and field event that involves throwing a heavy circular object known as a discus. The origins of the Discus Throw can be traced back to ancient Greece, where it was one of the five events in the ancient pentathlon.
The first recorded instance of the Discus Throw being included in the ancient Olympic Games was in 708 BC. The Greeks used a bronze discus that weighed between 1.2 and 2.5 kg, depending on the age and strength of the athlete.
Over time, the Discus Throw became a popular sport in many other parts of the world, including Nigeria. In Nigeria, the Discus Throw is part of the country’s athletics program and has produced some notable athletes.
One of Nigeria’s most famous Discus Throwers is Chioma Ajunwa, who won the gold medal at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, becoming the first Nigerian athlete to win an Olympic gold medal in any individual event.
Another notable Nigerian Discus Thrower is Stephen Mozia, who represented Nigeria at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. Mozia, who was born in New York, is a Nigerian-American athlete who set a national record in the Discus Throw with a throw of 63.32 meters in 2016.
Specification of Discus Throw
|Event Name||Discus Throw|
|Equipment||Discus is a heavy frisbee-shaped object made of wood, plastic, or metal.|
|Playing Area||A circle with a diameter of 2.5 meters is marked on the ground.|
|Rules||The athlete must remain inside the circle during the throw, and the discus must land within a marked sector. The athlete is allowed to make a maximum of three attempts.|
|Scoring||The distance of the throw is measured from the inside edge of the circle to the point where the discus first touches the ground. The athlete with the longest throw wins.|
|Weight of Discus||Men’s discus weighs 2 kilograms, while the women’s discus weighs 1 kilogram.|
|Distance||The current men’s world record is held by Jürgen Schult from East Germany, with a throw of 74.08 meters. The current women’s world record is held by Gabriele Reinsch from East Germany, with a throw of 76.80 meters.|
|Technique||The athlete spins around in the circle, building up momentum before releasing the discus. The technique involves a combination of strength, balance, and coordination.|
Nature of Shot Put Event
Shot put is a track and field event in which athletes compete to throw a heavy metal ball as far as possible. The shot put is a highly technical event that requires a combination of strength, speed, and technique.
In competition, each athlete is given a number of attempts to throw the shot put as far as they can. The athlete who throws the shot put the farthest distance is declared the winner.
The weight of the shot put varies depending on the athlete’s gender and age group. For men, the shot put weighs 7.26 kg (16 pounds) and for women, it weighs 4 kg (8.8 pounds).
The shot put event requires the athlete to hold the shot put in their hand, with the ball resting on the base of their fingers, and to launch it forward from a throwing circle. The athlete must remain within the throwing circle until the shot put lands.
The distance of the throw is measured from the inner edge of the throwing circle to where the shot put first lands. The athlete with the longest throw wins the competition.
Basic/Fundamental Skills in Shot Put
The following are the basic skills in the shot put:
Shot put is a track and field event that requires a combination of physical and technical skills. The following are some basic/fundamental skills that are essential to perform well in the shot put:
- Grip: The shot putter must have a firm and secure grip on the shot. The fingers should be spread apart and the shot should rest on the base of the fingers.
- Stance: The shot putter should have a stable and balanced stance. The feet should be shoulder-width apart, with the toes pointing forward or slightly to the side.
- Footwork: The shot putter must have a proper footwork technique to generate maximum power and momentum. The athlete should take a few short steps before the final power step, which is the longest step that generates maximum power.
- Rotation: The shot putter must execute a proper rotation technique. The athlete should initiate the rotation with the lower body and then follow with the upper body. The athlete should release the shot at the end of the rotation.
- Power: The shot putter must generate maximum power through the use of the legs, hips, and upper body. The athlete must also have good core strength and explosive power to execute a successful throw.
- Balance: The shot putter must maintain proper balance throughout the throw. The athlete should have a strong core and good body control to remain balanced during the throw.
- Release: The shot putter must release the shot at the optimal angle and height to achieve maximum distance. The athlete should release the shot at a 45-degree angle and at the highest point of the throw.
Types of Throw-in Shot Put
Basically, there are three types of throwing methods in the shot put they are –
- The glide technique is the most commonly used technique in shot put. In this technique, the athlete starts with their back to the throwing sector and takes a series of linear steps across the circle before pivoting and releasing the shot. The athlete must maintain balance and control throughout the throw to generate maximum force and achieve maximum distance.
- The spin technique, also known as the rotational technique, involves a circular motion around the circle before the release of the shot. The athlete starts with their back to the throwing sector and takes a series of small, quick steps as they rotate their body around the circle. The athlete then releases the shot as they complete their rotation. This technique requires excellent balance and timing to generate maximum force and achieve maximum distance.
- The shuffle technique is a less common technique used in shot put. In this technique, the athlete takes a few shuffling steps along the back of the circle before pivoting and releasing the shot. This technique is often used by athletes who lack the speed or mobility required for the glide or spin technique. However, it generally results in shorter distances as it does not allow for maximum force to be generated.
Rules and Regulations in Shot Put
Shot put is a track and field event that requires skill, technique, and strength. Here are 15 rules and regulations that govern the sport:
- Shot put is an individual event.
- Competitors must use a shot put that weighs 16 pounds for men and 8.8 pounds for women.
- The athlete must hold the shot put with one hand and place it under their chin or jawbone, with their elbow pointing out.
- The athlete must keep their feet inside the throwing circle at all times during the throw.
- The throwing circle has a diameter of 7 feet.
- The athlete may not step on or over the circle’s perimeter until the shot lands.
- The throw must be made from behind the circle’s perimeter.
- The athlete must release the shot with one hand only.
- The shot must land within the sector marked by two lines that extend from the circle’s centre at an angle of 34.92 degrees.
- The sector is a pie-shaped area with a width of 34.92 degrees.
- If the shot lands outside the sector or on the sector’s boundary lines, the throw is considered a foul.
- Each athlete gets six throws.
- The farthest legal throw is the athlete’s final score.
- If two or more athletes have the same farthest legal throw, the athlete with the second-best throw wins.
- Athletes may wear gloves and use chalk to improve their grip, but the use of any other aids is prohibited.
Facilities and Equipment in Shot Put
Facilities and equipment are important for the shot to put the event to ensure that the athlete can perform at their best and in a safe environment. Here are some of the facilities and equipment used in shot put:
- Throwing Circle: The throwing circle is a raised ring that is 7 feet in diameter and made of steel, concrete, or wood. It has a stop board at the front to prevent the athlete from stepping out of bounds while throwing.
- Shot Put: The shot put is a spherical object made of metal, usually brass or iron, with a weight of 4 kg for women and 7.26 kg for men. It has a smooth surface and must be held in one hand while throwing.
- Toe Board: The toe board is a 10 cm wide strip of wood or plastic that is fixed to the ground in front of the throwing circle. It marks the front edge of the circle and helps the athlete to maintain their balance during the throw.
- Throwing Sector: The throwing sector is a 34.92-degree angle from the centre of the throwing circle, and it is marked by a boundary line. The sector is designed to ensure that the shot lands within a specified area and to protect spectators from stray shots.
- Throwing Gloves: Throwing gloves are worn by shot put athletes to improve their grip on the shot and to prevent blisters on their fingers.
- Footwear: Shotput athletes require shoes that provide good traction and stability. The shoes should have a flat sole with no heel and should fit securely to prevent any injury.
- Weightlifting Belt: A weightlifting belt can help the athlete to maintain a stable core during the throw and to protect their lower back from injury.
- Weightlifting Shoes: Weightlifting shoes can provide a stable base for the athlete during the throw and can improve their posture and
Safety Measures In Shot Put
Shot put is a track and field event that involves throwing a heavy metal ball as far as possible. Due to the weight and potential danger of the shot put, it is important to follow safety measures to prevent injuries. Here are some of the safety measures for the shot put:
- Wearing Proper Equipment: Shot putters should wear appropriate equipment such as athletic shoes, shorts, and a shirt. It is important to choose shoes with good traction to prevent slipping while throwing. Additionally, the shirt should be snug to prevent interference with the throwing motion.
- Warm-up and Stretching: Before throwing, shot putters should perform a proper warm-up routine and stretching exercises to prepare their muscles for the activity. This helps to prevent injuries such as muscle strains or tears.
- Controlled Environment: Shot put should be performed in a controlled environment, such as a designated throwing area with safety nets or barriers. This helps to prevent the shot put from causing injuries to spectators or other participants.
- Proper Technique: Shot putters should learn and practice proper techniques to prevent injuries. This includes proper grip, stance, and throwing motion. Proper technique also helps to prevent the shot from slipping out of the hand and causing injury.
- Partner Assistance: Shot putters should have a partner to help them retrieve the shot after each throw. This helps to prevent injury from accidentally stepping on the shot.
- Proper Placement of Shot: Shot putters should place the shot correctly in their throwing hand to prevent it from slipping or rolling during the throw. The shot should be placed on the base of the fingers, not on the palm, to ensure the proper release and prevent injury.
- Cooling Down: After throwing, shot putters should perform a proper cool-down routine to prevent muscle soreness and injury.
Warm-up Activities for Shot Put Event
Generally, warm-up exercise is an essential part of any physical activity, this is to enable muscle tone and reduce the chances of sustaining any injury during activities.
The following warm-up activities are recommended before the shot put throw-
The wrist flip exercise is a great warm-up activity for the shot put event, as it helps to loosen up the muscles in the wrists and arms that are essential for a strong shot put throw. Here’s how to perform a wrist flip:
- Start by holding a lightweight object in your hand, such as a tennis ball or a small weight.
- Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart and your arms straight out in front of you, holding the object in one hand.
- Keeping your arm straight, flick your wrist so that the object flips up and over your hand, and then catch it in your other hand.
- Repeat this motion for several repetitions, and then switch hands and repeat on the other side.
- Gradually increase the weight of the object as your muscles warm up and become more limber.
- Once you’ve completed several sets of wrist flips, you should feel more prepared to begin practising your shot put throws.
Kettlebell exercises can be a great way to warm up before the shot put event. They help to increase blood flow and activate the muscles that are used during the shot put.
Here are some kettlebell exercises that can be included in a warm-up routine for the shot put:
- Kettlebell swings: This exercise is great for warming up the hips, glutes, and hamstrings, which are important muscle groups used during the shot put. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, holding the kettlebell with both hands in front of your body. Hinge at the hips and swing the kettlebell between your legs, then explosively drive your hips forward to swing the kettlebell up to chest height.
- Goblet squats: This exercise is great for warming up the legs, core, and upper back. Hold the kettlebell by the horns (the sides of the handle) at chest height, with your feet shoulder-width apart. Squat down, keeping your chest up and your knees in line with your toes, and then stand back up.
- Turkish get-ups: This exercise is great for warming up the shoulders, core, and hips. Lie on your back with the kettlebell in one hand, arm extended straight up toward the ceiling. Sit up, using your free hand for support, and then come to a standing position with the kettlebell held overhead. Reverse the movement to return to the starting position.
- Single-arm overhead presses: This exercise is great for warming up the shoulders, triceps, and core. Hold the kettlebell in one hand, with your elbow bent and the kettlebell at shoulder height. Press the kettlebell overhead, keeping your core tight and your arm straight. Lower the kettlebell back down to the starting position.
Arm strikes are simple movements that involve swinging your arms forward and backwards in a controlled and rhythmic manner. When performing arm strikes as a warm-up activity for the shot put, it is important to start slowly and gradually increase the intensity. You can begin by swinging your arms gently and slowly increasing the speed and range of motion as your muscles warm up. Aim to perform arm strikes for 5-10 minutes before moving on to more specific shot put warm-up activities.
It’s important to note that while high knee lifts can be a great warm-up activity, they should not be used as a substitute for a full warm-up routine that includes dynamic stretching and mobility exercises specific to the shot put. Be sure to consult with a coach or trainer to develop a comprehensive warm-up routine that meets your individual needs and goals.
Here are some reasons why arm strikes can be a useful warm-up activity for the shot put:
- Warming up the muscles: Arm strikes help to warm up the muscles in your arms, shoulders, and upper back. This can help to prevent injury and improve your performance.
- Increasing blood flow: As you swing your arms back and forth, you increase blood flow to the muscles. This helps to improve circulation and prepare your body for the upcoming activity.
- Improving coordination: The rhythmic nature of arms strikes helps to improve your coordination and timing. This can be beneficial for the shot put, which requires precise timing and coordination.
- Enhancing flexibility: Arm strikes can help to enhance your flexibility and range of motion in your shoulders and upper back. This can be useful for the shot put, which requires a wide range of motion in the upper body.
High Knee Lift:
High knee lifts can be a beneficial warm-up activity for the shot put as they can help to increase your heart rate and warm up your leg muscles, which are critical for generating power and balance during the shot put. Here’s how to do it:
- Begin by standing up straight with your feet shoulder-width apart.
- Start marching in place, lifting your knees as high as you can with each step. Make sure to keep your upper body straight and engage your core muscles to maintain your balance.
- As you lift your knees, swing your opposite arm forward to create a natural arm motion. This will help to warm up your upper body and improve your coordination.
- Continue marching in place with high knee lifts for 30-60 seconds, or until you feel adequately warmed up.
While shuttle runs can be a great cardiovascular warm-up exercise, they may not be the most effective warm-up activity for the specific muscles used in the shot put event.
Shot put requires a significant amount of power and explosiveness from the lower body, particularly in the legs and hips, as well as strong core and upper body muscles. Therefore, a warm-up routine that focuses on activating and preparing these muscles would be more beneficial.
Some warm-up activities that may be more effective for shot put include:
- Dynamic stretching: Performing dynamic stretches that focus on the lower body muscles, such as lunges, leg swings, and high knees can help to increase the range of motion and activate the muscles needed for the shot put.
- Medicine ball throws: Practicing medicine ball throws can help to activate the muscles used in the shot put, while also increasing explosiveness and power.
- Plyometric exercises: Plyometric exercises such as box jumps and power skips can help to increase explosiveness in the lower body muscles.
- Resistance band exercises: Using resistance bands to perform exercises such as band walks and lateral lunges can help to activate the muscles used in the shot put, while also improving mobility and stability.