Back to: Jss1 Physical and Health Education (BST)
Topic: Ball Games (Soccer )
WEEK: 7 & 8
Soccer, also known as football in many parts of the world, is a popular team sport played by millions of people around the globe. The game involves two teams, each consisting of 11 players, who attempt to score goals by kicking a ball into the opposing team’s goalpost. The team with the most goals at the end of the game wins.
Soccer is widely regarded as the world’s most popular sport, with an estimated 4 billion fans worldwide. The sport has a long and rich history, with its roots dating back to ancient times. The modern game, as we know it today, originated in England in the mid-19th century and quickly spread to other parts of the world.
Soccer is played on a rectangular field with a goal at either end. The game is played in two 45-minute halves, with a break of 15 minutes in between. The ball is controlled using various parts of the body, including the feet, legs, chest, and head. Players are not allowed to use their hands or arms, except for the goalkeeper who can use their hands within their own penalty area.
Soccer is a sport that requires a high level of skill, athleticism, and teamwork. It is also a sport that brings people together, transcending cultural and linguistic boundaries. The World Cup, which takes place every four years, is the most prestigious international soccer tournament and attracts a global audience.
History of Soccer
Soccer, a beloved sport played worldwide, is commonly believed to have originated in England in the 10th century. However, there is evidence suggesting that the Romans, who learned it from the Greeks, played a form of soccer as well. The game was introduced to the United States in 1870, where it was called soccer, while in England it was referred to as association football. International soccer began in 1872 with a match between England and Scotland in Glasgow, Scotland.
The first-ever World Cup Championship took place in 1930 in Uruguay, where thirteen countries participated. Since then, soccer has become a global phenomenon and a widely recognized world championship sport. In 1904, the Federation of International Football Association (FIFA) was founded with Guerin as its first president, responsible for overseeing the sport worldwide. The organization’s headquarters are located in Zurich, Switzerland.
Origin of the Soccer in Nigeria
The origin of soccer in Nigeria can be traced back to the colonial era when British missionaries and colonial administrators introduced the sport to the country. The first recorded soccer match in Nigeria took place in 1904, between the British colonizers and the locals in Lagos.
Initially, soccer was only played by British expatriates, but as the game gained popularity, more Nigerians started playing and watching the sport. The first soccer club in Nigeria, Lagos Marina Football Club, was founded in 1912, and other clubs like Ibadan Lions and Port Harcourt FC were established in the following years.
In the 1940s and 1950s, Nigeria started producing talented soccer players, such as Tesilimi Balogun and Dan Anyiam, who played for top clubs in England. In 1949, Nigeria’s national soccer team played its first international match against Sierra Leone.
Since then, soccer has become the most popular sport in Nigeria, with the national team, also known as the Super Eagles, achieving significant success on the international stage, including winning the African Cup of Nations three times and qualifying for six FIFA World Cup tournaments.
Dimension of the Soccer Pitch
|Length||The length of a soccer pitch is between 100-130 yards (90-120 meters) long.|
|Width||The width of a soccer pitch is between 50-100 yards (45-90 meters) wide.|
|Penalty Area||The penalty area is a rectangular box located at each end of the field, and it is 18 yards (16.5 meters) from the goal line and 44 yards (40 meters) wide. This area is where the goalkeeper can use their hands and where fouls committed by defenders can result in a penalty kick for the opposing team.|
|Goal Area||The goal area is a smaller box inside the penalty area, and it is 6 yards (5.5 meters) from the goal line and 20 yards (18 meters) wide. This area is where goal kicks are taken.|
|Center Circle||The centre circle is a circular area in the middle of the field with a radius of 10 yards (9 meters). It is where the game starts and where the opposing team must stay outside of during kick-off.|
|Corner Arc||The corner arc is a quarter-circle with a radius of 1 yard (1 meter) located at each corner of the field. This is where corner kicks are taken.|
|Goal||The goal is located at each end of the field and is 8 feet (2.44 meters) high and 8 yards (7.32 meters) wide. The goalposts and crossbar must be the same width and depth.|
Note that the exact dimensions of a soccer pitch may vary depending on the governing body and level of play.
Officials of soccer
The officials of soccer are
The officials of soccer are responsible for enforcing the rules and ensuring fair play during a soccer match. The followings are the key officials in soccer and their roles:
- Referee: The referee is the most important official on the field. Their role is to enforce the rules of the game and ensure fair play. The referee has the final say in all decisions and can issue yellow and red cards to players who violate the rules. They also decide when to start and stop play, and they have the power to award penalties and free kicks.
- Assistant Referees: There are two assistant referees who are positioned on each side of the field. They are responsible for signalling when the ball goes out of bounds and when a player is offside. They also assist the referee with making decisions on fouls and other rule violations.
- Fourth Official: The fourth official is responsible for keeping track of substitutions and signalling the referee when a player needs to be replaced. They also assist the referee with maintaining order on the sideline.
- Video Assistant Referee (VAR): The VAR is a relatively new addition to soccer and is used to review decisions made by the referee during the match. The VAR can review incidents that may have been missed by the officials on the field and advise the referee on whether to change their decision.
Facility and Equipment Used in Soccer
The Facilities in Soccer
The facilities in soccer refer to the necessary equipment and infrastructure required for playing a game of soccer. The two primary facilities in soccer are:
- Playing pitch/field: A soccer field is a rectangular playing surface used for playing soccer. The dimensions of a standard soccer field are 100-130 yards in length and 50-100 yards in width. The field is divided into two halves with a centre line and two goal lines at either end. The pitch may be made of natural or artificial turf and must be marked with boundary lines and other necessary markings, such as penalty areas, goal areas, and centre circles.
- Goal posts: The goal posts are two vertical posts that are placed at either end of the soccer field. The posts are usually made of wood, metal, or plastic and are approximately 8 feet high and 8 yards apart. A horizontal crossbar connects the two posts at a height of 8 feet. The objective of the game is to score a goal by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goalpost.
The Equipment Used in Soccer
The equipment used in soccer is essential to ensure the safety of the players and the smooth running of the game. Here are some of the most important pieces of equipment used in soccer:
- Soccer ball: The soccer ball is the most important piece of equipment in soccer. It is usually made of leather or synthetic materials and must be inflated to the correct pressure.
- Soccer boots: Soccer boots are specially designed shoes that provide traction and support for the player’s feet. They usually have studs or cleats on the sole to help players grip the ground and change direction quickly.
- Jersey and shorts: Each team wears a specific jersey and shorts that are usually made of lightweight, breathable materials. These jerseys typically have the team’s colours and logo on them to help identify the players.
- Corner flags: Corner flags are used to mark the corners of the field. They are usually made of plastic or metal and have a flag attached to the top.
- Shin guards: Shin guards are worn by players to protect their shins from kicks and collisions. They are usually made of hard plastic or foam and are held in place with straps.
- Net: The net is hung behind each goal to catch the ball when a goal is scored. The net is usually made of nylon or other synthetic materials.
- Whistle: The referee uses a whistle to signal the start and end of the game, as well as to stop play for fouls or other violations.
- Yellow and red cards: The referee uses yellow and red cards to penalize players for fouls or other violations. A yellow card is a warning, while a red card results in the player being sent off the field.
- Stopwatch: The referee uses a stopwatch to keep track of the time played in each half of the game. They also use it to add extra time for stoppages in play, such as injuries or substitutions.
The Skills and Techniques
The basic skills and techniques in soccer
- Kicking: This is the most basic and essential skill in soccer. Players need to learn how to strike the ball with precision and power, whether they are shooting on goal or passing to a teammate.
- Passing: Accurate passing is key to moving the ball quickly around the field and maintaining possession. Players must be able to execute short and long passes with both feet.
- Dribbling: Dribbling involves running with the ball while maintaining control of the feet. Good dribbling skills enable players to manoeuvre around opponents and create scoring opportunities.
- Heading: Heading is a specialized skill that involves using the forehead to redirect the ball in the air. It is used for both attacking and defensive purposes, such as scoring goals or clearing the ball out of danger.
- Throw-in: When the ball goes out of bounds over the sideline, the opposing team gets a throw-in. This skill involves throwing the ball back onto the field to a teammate while keeping both feet on the ground.
- Trapping: Trapping is the art of bringing the ball under control quickly and efficiently. Players must be able to use various parts of the body to stop the ball, such as the chest, thigh, or feet.
- Goalkeeping: Goalkeepers have a unique set of skills and techniques, including diving, catching, and punching the ball to prevent the other team from scoring. They must also have excellent spatial awareness and communication skills to direct their defence.
Practical Demonstration of Skills in Soccer
Warm-up Activities before the Lesson
The practical demonstration of skills in soccer is an essential aspect of improving one’s abilities in the game. To ensure that players are well prepared physically and mentally, warm-up activities are necessary before beginning a soccer lesson or training session.
Here are some warm-up activities that can be done before starting a soccer lesson:
- Jogging around the field – This activity helps to raise the body’s temperature and heart rate while also loosening up the muscles.
- Running on the spot – This activity helps to improve coordination and agility, which are essential skills in soccer.
- Neck Rotation – This activity helps to loosen up the neck muscles and prevent injuries during the game.
- Windmill – This activity helps to stretch the upper body muscles, including the arms, shoulders, and back.
- Press-up – This activity helps to strengthen the chest and arm muscles, which are important for performing powerful kicks and headers.
- Push-up – This activity helps to strengthen the core muscles, which are essential for maintaining balance and stability during the game.
- Sit-up – This activity helps to strengthen the abdominal muscles, which are important for maintaining posture and balance during the game.
- Frog Jump – This activity helps to improve leg strength and power, which are essential for performing quick sprints and jumps during the game.
Practical Skills in a Soccer Game
Practical skills in soccer games are abilities that players need to develop in order to be successful on the field. Here are some of the most important practical skills in a soccer games and what they involve:
- Kicking: This skill involves using the leg to move the ball from place to place. There are different types of kicks in soccer, including passes, shots, and crosses. Players need to be able to kick the ball with both feet, using the side of the foot or the instep.
- Passing: Passing is the act of sending the ball from one player to another. This can be done by kicking, chesting, or heading the ball. Players need to be able to pass accurately and with the right amount of force, depending on the situation.
- Dribbling: Dribbling is the ability to move with the ball while avoiding opponents. This involves keeping the ball close to the feet and moving in a zigzag manner to avoid being tackled. Good dribbling skills can help players create scoring opportunities and maintain possession of the ball.
- Shooting: Shooting is the act of kicking the ball towards the goal in an attempt to score. This skill requires accuracy, power, and good technique. Players need to be able to shoot with both feet and from different angles and distances.
- Tackling: Tackling is the act of taking the ball away from an opponent. This can be done by sliding in, using the feet to poke the ball away, or using the body to block the opponent. Good tackling skills are essential for defenders and midfielders.
- Heading: Heading is the act of using the head to control or redirect the ball. This skill is important for both attacking and defending and requires good timing, technique, and bravery.
- Positioning: Positioning is the ability to be in the right place at the right time. This involves understanding the game and anticipating where the ball and opponents are likely to be. Good positioning can help players intercept passes, make tackles, and create scoring opportunities.