Back to: Jss3 Physical and Health Education (BST)
Topic: STI, HIV/AIDS
WEEK: 9 & 10
STI stands for sexually transmitted infections, which are infections that are transmitted through sexual contact. This includes a wide range of infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), among others.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, which is a virus that attacks the immune system. If left untreated, HIV can progress to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), which is a condition that occurs when the immune system is severely weakened and unable to fight off infections and diseases.
HIV is transmitted through the exchange of bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. It can be transmitted through unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or other injection drug equipment, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but there are effective treatments available that can help people with HIV live long, healthy lives. It’s also important to take steps to prevent the transmission of HIV and other STIs, such as practising safe sex, getting tested regularly, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection drug equipment.
Examples of STIs
STI stands for Sexually Transmitted Infection, which is a type of infection that is spread through sexual contact. Here are some examples of STIs:
- Chlamydia: This is a bacterial infection that can be spread through vaginal, anal or oral sex. It can cause pain during urination, discharge, and lower abdominal pain in women.
- Gonorrhea: This is also a bacterial infection that is spread through sexual contact. It can cause painful urination, discharge, and fever in some cases.
- Syphilis: This is a bacterial infection that can be spread through vaginal, anal or oral sex. It can cause sores or rashes on the genitals, mouth or anus, and if left untreated, can lead to serious health problems.
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV): This is a viral infection that can be spread through sexual contact. It can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer in women.
- Herpes: This is a viral infection that can be spread through vaginal, anal or oral sex. It can cause blisters or sores on the genitals, mouth or anus, and can be recurrent.
- HIV: This is a viral infection that attacks the immune system and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
- Hepatitis B: This is a viral infection that can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, and from mother to child during childbirth. It can cause liver damage and increase the risk of liver cancer.
Consequences of Contracting Diseases on Individual
Contracting a disease can have a range of consequences on an individual, both physical and emotional. Here are some common consequences:
- Physical symptoms: Many diseases cause physical symptoms such as pain, fatigue, fever, cough, and sore throat. These symptoms can be uncomfortable and can interfere with daily activities and quality of life.
- Complications: Some diseases can lead to complications that can be life-threatening or cause long-term health problems. For example, diabetes can cause blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage.
- Financial burden: Treating a disease can be expensive, especially if it requires hospitalization or ongoing medical care. This can create a financial burden for individuals and their families.
- Emotional distress: Coping with a disease can be emotionally difficult. It can lead to feelings of anxiety, depression, fear, and frustration.
- Social isolation: Some diseases are contagious, which can lead to social isolation and stigma. Individuals with contagious diseases may feel isolated from friends, family, and the larger community.
- Lost opportunities: Being sick can result in missed opportunities, such as missing work or school, being unable to participate in social activities, or missing out on important life events.
- Reduced life expectancy: Some diseases can reduce life expectancy, meaning an individual may have a shorter life span than they would have without the disease.
Consequences of Contracting Diseases in Family
Contracting a disease can have various consequences on families. Here are some of the common consequences:
- Emotional and psychological impact: When a family member contracts a disease, it can cause emotional distress and anxiety among other family members. They may feel worried and anxious about the health of their loved one and may experience feelings of helplessness, guilt, and anger.
- Financial burden: Treating a disease can be expensive and can put a financial strain on families. The cost of medication, hospitalization, and other medical expenses can add up quickly and cause financial stress.
- Disruption of daily routines: When a family member is sick, it can disrupt the daily routines of the family. Other family members may have to take time off work or school to take care of the sick family member, which can cause additional stress.
- Social isolation: If the disease is contagious, it may require the sick family member to isolate themselves from others to prevent the spread of the disease. This can cause feelings of social isolation and loneliness for both the sick family member and other family members.
- Strained relationships: Caring for a sick family member can be challenging, and it can cause strain on relationships within the family. Family members may experience conflicts over decision-making, caregiving responsibilities, and other issues related to the disease.
- Increased caregiving responsibilities: When a family member is sick, other family members may have to take on additional caregiving responsibilities, which can be physically and emotionally demanding. This can also affect their own personal and professional lives.
Consequences of Contracting Diseases in Society
Contracting a disease can have numerous consequences on society, which can vary depending on the specific disease and its severity. Below are some of the potential consequences:
- Economic impact: Diseases can have a significant economic impact on society. The cost of medical treatment, hospitalization, and medication can be a burden on the individual and society at large. Additionally, diseases can cause a loss of productivity due to sick days, hospitalization, and death.
- Social impact: Some diseases can have a profound impact on society’s social fabric. For example, the stigma attached to certain diseases such as HIV/AIDS can lead to discrimination and isolation of individuals with the disease.
- Psychological impact: Diseases can have a psychological impact on individuals and society. The fear and uncertainty surrounding diseases can lead to anxiety, depression, and panic. The psychological impact can be especially severe in the case of highly infectious diseases.
- Healthcare system overload: Diseases can put a strain on healthcare systems, leading to overcrowding, shortage of supplies, and a lack of medical personnel. This can lead to a breakdown in the healthcare system, making it difficult for patients to receive the care they need.
- Disruption of daily life: Diseases can disrupt daily life by causing schools, workplaces, and public places to close. This can lead to economic disruption, social isolation, and a decline in mental health.
- The strain on resources: Diseases can strain resources, leading to shortages of medical supplies, food, and other necessities. This can lead to price hikes, scarcity, and increased competition for resources.
- Spread of disease: Diseases can spread rapidly within a society, leading to further infections and potential outbreaks. This can further exacerbate the consequences listed above.
Disease prevention refers to the actions and measures taken to avoid the onset or spread of illness. There are different levels of disease prevention, including primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
Primary prevention involves measures that are taken to prevent the onset of disease in the first place. Examples of primary prevention measures include vaccination, practising good hygiene such as washing hands regularly, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding risky behaviours such as smoking or excessive alcohol consumption.
Secondary prevention involves detecting and treating diseases in their early stages before they become severe or progress. Examples of secondary prevention measures include regular medical check-ups and screenings, self-examination for breast or skin cancer, and early intervention for conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes.
Tertiary prevention involves managing and treating existing illnesses to prevent complications and minimize the impact of the disease. Examples of tertiary prevention measures include medication, surgery, physical therapy, and rehabilitation.
Diseases can be prevented as follows;
- Regular Handwashing: Handwashing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds can prevent the spread of infections and diseases.
- Immunization: Immunization is one of the most effective ways to prevent infectious diseases. Vaccines can help prevent serious diseases such as measles, chickenpox, hepatitis B, and many more.
- Exercise regularly: Exercise can help boost your immune system and prevent chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and obesity.
- Maintain a healthy diet: A healthy diet can boost your immune system, help you maintain a healthy weight, and prevent chronic diseases.
- Get enough sleep: Sleep is important for maintaining good health and preventing diseases. Adults should aim to get 7-9 hours of sleep per night.
- Practice safe sex: Safe sex practices can help prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
- Avoid smoking and secondhand smoke: Smoking and secondhand smoke can increase the risk of heart disease, lung cancer, and other health problems.
- Limit alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol consumption can lead to liver disease, cancer, and other health problems.
- Practice good dental hygiene: Good dental hygiene can prevent tooth decay, gum disease, and other dental problems.
- Protect yourself from the sun: Protecting your skin from the sun can prevent skin cancer and premature ageing.
- Manage stress: Chronic stress can lead to a variety of health problems, including heart disease, depression, and anxiety.
- Practice good hygiene: Good hygiene practices, such as covering your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze, can prevent the spread of germs.
- Practice food safety: Food safety practices, such as washing your hands before handling food and cooking food thoroughly, can prevent foodborne illnesses.
- Practice workplace safety: Workplace safety practices, such as wearing protective equipment and following safety protocols, can prevent workplace injuries and illnesses.
- Get regular health screenings: Regular health screenings can help detect diseases early and prevent them from becoming more serious.