Back to: Jss3 Physical and Health Education (BST)
Topic: Contact Games (Taekwondo)
A contact game is a type of sport where physical contact between participants is allowed and not penalized. These games require a high level of physical fitness, endurance, and strength, as well as strategic thinking and quick reflexes. Some popular examples of contact games include wrestling, boxing, judo, and taekwondo.
Taekwondo is a Korean martial art that focuses on high kicks and rapid footwork. It is also an Olympic sport, with participants competing in weight classes. Taekwondo emphasizes the use of the legs and feet for both offensive and defensive maneuvers, and it involves sparring with an opponent while wearing protective gear. Taekwondo training also includes forms, which are a series of movements and techniques practiced alone or with a partner.
Boxing is another popular contact sport that has been practiced for centuries. It involves two participants fighting each other while wearing gloves and following a set of rules. The objective of boxing is to knock out the opponent or to score more points by landing punches on specific areas of the body. Boxing requires a high level of physical fitness, strength, and endurance, as well as strategic thinking and quick reflexes.
Both taekwondo and boxing require discipline, perseverance, and dedication to master. They can provide numerous physical and mental benefits, such as improving cardiovascular health, enhancing coordination and balance, and building self-confidence. However, they also involve certain risks, such as injuries to the head, face, and body. Therefore, it is important to learn and practice these sports under the guidance of a trained and qualified instructor.
Taekwondo is a popular martial art that originated in Korea and has gained worldwide recognition for its effectiveness in self-defence and as a form of exercise. While the origins of Taekwondo can be traced back to Japanese karate, it has evolved into a distinct martial art with its own unique style and techniques.
During the Japanese occupation of Korea in the early 1900s, Japanese karate was introduced to the Korean people. Over time, the Koreans adapted and refined the techniques, creating their own martial art, which they named Taekwondo. The name “Taekwondo” translates to “the way of the foot and fist” and emphasizes the use of kicks, punches, and strikes as primary methods of attack and defence.
Taekwondo was introduced to Nigeria by Aikpa Aime of Cote D’Ivoire in 1975. The sport gained popularity in Nigeria, and in 1987, the Taekwondo Association of Nigeria (TAN) was founded. In 2004, the organization was renamed the Nigerian Taekwondo Federation (NTF).
Taekwondo training involves physical movement and exercises that promote fitness, strength, and flexibility. As a martial art, it also emphasizes discipline, self-control, and mental focus. Taekwondo practitioners are known for their confidence, determination, and respect for others.
During competitions, Taekwondo officials play an important role in ensuring fair play and safety. The head of the court oversees the competition, while the centre referee enforces the rules and makes decisions about fouls and penalties. The timekeeper and scorekeeper keep track of the time and scores, respectively, while two or four corner judges observe the match and make judgments about the quality of the techniques used. Finally, the arbitration board is responsible for resolving any disputes or conflicts that may arise during the competition.
Taekwondo is a Korean martial art that combines elements of karate and taekwondo. Its origins can be traced back to the early 20th century when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. During this time, Koreans were forbidden from practising their own martial arts, and many turned to study karate and kung fu instead.
After Korea gained independence in 1945, a number of schools were established to further develop these martial arts, including Mudokwan, Odokwan, Changmukwan, Chongdokwan, and Yonmukwan. However, it was General Choi Hong Hi who is considered to be the father of modern taekwondo. He combined the techniques of karate and taekwondo and taught them to his soldiers.
In 1968, General Choi founded the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF) in Canada. However, in 1973, South Korea founded the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), which later became the governing body for taekwondo worldwide. The first WTF Taekwondo Championship was held in May 1973, and the sport was later recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in July 1980.
Taekwondo was first introduced as a demonstration sport at the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea, and has been an official event at every Olympic Games since the 2000 Sydney Olympics. It was also admitted as an official event at the Asian Games in 1984.
After the death of General Choi Hong Hi, the ITF splintered into three major groups: ITF Canada, ITF Austria, and ITF North Korea. Today, taekwondo is practised in over 200 countries, and there are two main styles: ITF-style and WTF-style. Despite the differences between the two styles, both emphasize speed, agility, and powerful kicks.
History of Taekwondo in Nigeria
The history of Taekwondo in Nigeria dates back to 1975 when the Ivorian Master Aikpa Aime introduced martial art to the country. At that time, Taekwondo was still relatively unknown in Nigeria, but it quickly gained popularity among the people.
Over time, two associations emerged in Nigeria – the Nigerian National Taekwondo Association (NNTA) and the United Nigeria Taekwondo Association (UNTA) – both of which contributed to the development of Taekwondo in the country.
In 1983, the Federal Government of Nigeria recognized the potential of Taekwondo and requested the Korean government to send two Korean experts, Mr. Moo Cheun Kim and Mr. Jhoo Rae Pak (both of the World Taekwondo Federation), to instruct the Nigeria army in Taekwondo. This was a significant moment for the growth of Taekwondo in Nigeria, as it further popularized the martial art and demonstrated its effectiveness for self-defense and physical fitness.
In 1986, the Taekwondo Association of Nigeria (TAN) was formed, with the aim of promoting and developing Taekwondo throughout the country. TAN has played a vital role in organizing Taekwondo events, promoting international exchanges, and creating training programs for Taekwondo instructors and students.
Today, Taekwondo is a popular sport in Nigeria, with many schools, clubs, and associations offering training programs for both children and adults. The Nigerian Taekwondo Federation (NTF) was established in 1990 and is the governing body for Taekwondo in Nigeria. The NTF is responsible for organizing national and international competitions, selecting national teams, and promoting the sport in the country.
Techniques of Taekwondo
There are many techniques in Taekwondo but for the sake of this book we are going to categorize the techniques into:
2. Leg Technique (Kicks)
3. Hand Techniques (Striking and Blocking)
Stance is a fundamental concept in martial arts, including Taekwondo, and refers to the position from which a fighter performs movements and techniques. A proper stance serves as the foundation for effective strikes, blocks, kicks, and footwork, and can also provide balance, stability, and power to the practitioner.
The importance of stance in Taekwondo cannot be overstated, as it is the starting point for nearly every technique. A good stance allows the fighter to generate maximum force and speed with minimal effort while maintaining balance and stability. It also allows for quick and fluid transitions between different movements and techniques.
There are several common stances in Taekwondo, each with its own purpose and application. The most basic stance is the parallel stance, in which the feet are shoulder-width apart and parallel to each other. This stance is used for basic techniques, such as punches and blocks, and is also the starting position for many forms and patterns.
Another common stance is the front stance, in which one foot is placed forward and the other foot is placed behind, with the knees bent and the weight distributed evenly between both legs. This stance is used for longer-range techniques, such as front kicks and lunges, and allows the practitioner to cover more distance quickly while maintaining balance and stability.
The back stance, also known as the walking stance, is similar to the front stance but with the back foot turned slightly outward. This stance is used for shorter-range techniques, such as back kicks and spins, and allows for quick changes in direction and rapid movement.
Other stances in Taekwondo include the horse stance, which is a wider stance used for stability and power, and the cat stance, which is a low and agile stance used for quick movements and evasions.
Common stance positions in Taekwondo are shown in the table below:
|Attention Stance (Moa Sugr)||Feet are together and closed, and both knees are bent. This is the stance for the charyut command. Both feet face forwards.|
|Relaxed Stance (Naranhi Sugi)||Feet are one foot length apart. Both legs are straight. This is the stance for junbi and listening stance. Both feet face straight forwards.|
|Walking Stance (Ap Sugi)||Walking stance is also known as short stance or short forward stance. The insides of the feet are on the opposite sides of the same line and one foot apart. The back foot can be slightly rotated to the outside, up to 30 degrees.|
|Mid Stance (Ap Kubi)||There is one fist distance between the inside edges of the feet.|
|Long Stance (Ap Kubi)||The feet are shoulder width apart and the front foot is two shoulder widths in front of the back one. The front knee is bent so that one cannot see the toes.|
|Back Stance (Dwit Kubi)||In back stance both knees are bent and most of the body weight is placed on the back one.|
|Tiger Stance (Bum Sugi)||In tiger stance one foot is placed in front of the other with the insides of the feet on the same lines. The front foot is up and both knees are bent.|
|Crane Stance (Hakdari Sugi)||Crane stance is where one foot is on the ground and the other foot rests in the knee.|
|Crossed Stance (Koa Sugi)||Crossed stance is where you cross one foot behind the other.|
|Sparring Stance||The sparring stance is not fixed, it changes with different circumstances.|
|Fighting Stance||This is used in real self defense and it varies with circumstances|
Leg Techniques (Kicks)
|Front Kick (Ap Chaggie)||The knee is brought up to the chest and snapped out so that one kicks with the ball of the foot.|
|Roundhouse Kick (Tylo Chaggie)||In this technique, the leg is brought straight from the ground and the hips is turned to bring the leg to hit the target. There are five types of roundhouse kick.|
|Double Kicks||These are extremely useful kicks. These kicks can hit an opponent on both the closed and open side, and are also are very effective at blocking counter attacks.|
|Side Kick (Yup Chaggie)||The body is turned 180 degrees and the foot is brought to the chest and then released. In order to perform this kick correctly, you must hit the target with the heel and edge of your foot.|
|Ax Kick (Chicki Chagggie)||This kick is often used for board breaking because of its power. The foot is brought straight up above the head, and then smashing down on the target.|
|Crescent Kicks (BahndaH Chaggie)||You sweep your foot up in acrescent motion to hit the opponent on the side of the head using the side of the foot.|
|Back kick (Dwi Chaggie)||This kick is accomplished by turning your body 90 degrees and then by kicking straight backwards, making contact with the heel of your foot. It is a very useful counter attack.|
|Hook Kick||The foot is brought up like a sidekick but instead it is hooked over to hit the side of the headgear.|
|Spin Hook Kick||This kick is much like back kick, except instead of going straight back, the foot hooks over to make contact with the side of the headgear.|
Hand techniques in Taekwondo are divided into blocks and strikes. Blocking Hand Techniques
|Blocking Technique||Starting Position||Ending Position|
|Low Block||Blocking hand towards face at shoulder level. Other arm is straight and facing towards blocking leg.||In front of thigh and two fist widths above.|
|Middle Block||On opposite hip.||Even with shoulderline.|
|Sweeping Middle Block||Arm bent at 90° and facing backwards.||Fist even with shoulder.|
|Turning Middle Block||Same as middle block.||Turn fist outside.|
|High Block||Palm facing inside, in front of hip.||Wrist at centerline of face, one fist in front and one fist above forehead.|
|Low Guarding Block||Chamber hand palmdown, blocking hand palm up and angled 30° upwards.||Same as low block and other hand is on sternum one palm distance away.|
|Middle Guarding Block||Chamber straight out on opposite side ofbody, blocking hand facing inwards, striking hand facing down.||Front hand facing palm away from body back hand facing up and in front of sternum.|
|High Guarding Block||Same as MiddleGuarding Block.||Front hand same as Middle Guarding Block, back hand same as high block.|
Striking Hand Techniques
|Striking Technique||Starting Position||Ending Position|
|Punch||Fist palm up on hip.||Even with sternum|
|High Punch||Fist palm up on hip||Halfway between nose and mouth|
|Knifehand||Same as low block but open||Even with target|
|Ridgehand||Same as punch||Even with target|
|Spearfingers||Open hand palm up on ribs||Sternum or other soft target|
|Front Backfist||Fist in armpit of otherarm, palm down||Halfway between nose and mouth.|
|Side Backfist||Fist in armpit of other arm, palm down||Even with target. Arm slightly bent|
|Hammerfist||Fist in armpit of other shoulder||Top of head|
|Tiger’s Mouth||Fist palm up on hips.||Even with throat. Palm flat.|
|Palm Strike||Fist palm up on hip and open||Even with target|
|Turning Palm Strike||Same as palm strike||To jaw|
|Elbow Strike||Fist palm up on hip meets palm of support hand.||Attack jaw and palm of closed fist faces down.|
|Elbow Smash||Non-striking handopens and reaches out||End at solar plexus with forearm parallel to ground.|
Importance of Taekwondo
- Taekwondo nurtures an appreciation for both the sport and the art form.
- Active involvement in taekwondo leads to physical fitness and well-being.
- The practice of taekwondo enhances mental discipline and emotional balance.
- Taekwondo provides valuable self-defence skills.
- Taekwondo fosters a sense of responsibility for oneself and others.
- Taekwondo cultivates self-confidence.
- Concentration is a crucial component of taekwondo, leading to improved focus.
- Respect is a fundamental aspect of taekwondo, with participants bowing to one another as a sign of this value.
- Taekwondo promotes friendship and camaraderie among its practitioners.
- Moral development is strengthened and behavioural issues are weakened through the practice of taekwondo.
Safety Rules and Regulations in Taekwondo
- Competitors are allowed to kick to the head area only.
- Every kick should be a light contact.
- If a competitor executes a successful technique to the head with light contact and without causing injury, they will receive two points.
- A competitor who executes a kick to the head that results in a minor injury will have one point deducted.
- If a competitor executes a kick to the head that results in the opponent being unable to continue because of the injury, they will be disqualified.
- The centre referee will determine whether an injury is minor or an attack is excessive.
- Fighting on the street is not allowed.
- Beginners should use only what they have been taught during practice and combat.
- Competitors should feel physically and mentally prepared before going into fighting.
- Competitors must follow the referee’s instructions.
- Competitors must not abuse the referee.
- Competitors must not complain during the fight.
- Competitors should maintain eye contact with their opponent before and during the combat, especially when greeting at the beginning of the combat.
- Competitors must tie their belt securely.
Officials In Taekwondo
There are several officials involved in Taekwondo tournaments and events. These officials are responsible for ensuring fair play, safety, and adherence to the rules of Taekwondo. The following are some of the officials in Taekwondo and their roles:
- Referee: The referee is responsible for ensuring that the competition is conducted in accordance with the rules of Taekwondo. They oversee each match and make decisions on points, fouls, and penalties. The referee must have a thorough knowledge of the rules of Taekwondo, excellent judgment, and the ability to remain calm under pressure.
- Judges: Judges are responsible for scoring each match based on the techniques used by the athletes. They also assist the referee in making decisions on points and fouls. Judges must have a thorough knowledge of Taekwondo techniques, excellent observation skills, and the ability to remain unbiased.
- Jury: The jury is responsible for reviewing the decisions made by the referee and judges. They have the power to overrule decisions if they believe that a mistake has been made. The jury is usually made up of senior officials or coaches with extensive knowledge of the rules of Taekwondo.
- Timekeeper: The timekeeper is responsible for keeping track of the time during each match. They start and stop the clock when instructed by the referee and keep track of the time remaining in each round.
- Scorer: The scorer is responsible for recording the points scored by each athlete during the match. They must be able to record points quickly and accurately to ensure that the competition runs smoothly.
- Medical Official: The medical officer is responsible for ensuring the safety of the athletes. They must be present at all times during the competition and be prepared to provide first aid in the event of an injury